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Genetics News
Fri, 31 Jul 2015 10:52:40 EDT
Starvation effects handed down for generations
Starvation early in life can alter an organism for generations to come, according to a new study in nematodes. The epigenetic effects are a 'bet-hedging strategy.' Famine survivors are smaller and less fertile, and they acquire a toughness that lasts at least two generations. The mechanism of the epigenetic inheritance has not been identified, however.
Fri, 31 Jul 2015 10:36:59 EDT
RNA-binding protein influences key mediator of cellular inflammation, stress responses
RNA-binding proteins such as RC3H1 regulate the degradation of the mRNA molecules and thus prevent the production of specific proteins. Researchers have now shown that ROQUIN binds several thousand mRNA molecules. They demonstrated that ROQUIN also influences the gene regulator NF-kappaB, a key mediator of cellular inflammation and stress responses.
Fri, 31 Jul 2015 10:36:48 EDT
Protein machines make fluctuating flows unconsciously
Protein machines, regardless of their specific functions, can collectively induce fluctuating hydrodynamic flows and substantially enhance the diffusive motions of particles in the cell, an international research group has demonstrated.
Thu, 30 Jul 2015 17:26:05 EDT
Cell aging slowed by putting brakes on noisy transcription
Working with yeast and worms, researchers found that incorrect gene expression is a hallmark of aged cells and that reducing such “noise” extends lifespan in these organisms.
Thu, 30 Jul 2015 13:07:31 EDT
How a single molecule turns one immune cell into another
All it takes is one molecule to reprogram an antibody-producing B cell into a scavenging macrophage. This transformation is possible, new evidence shows, because the molecule (C/EBPa, a transcription factor) 'short-circuits' the cells so that they re-express genes reserved for embryonic development.
Wed, 29 Jul 2015 14:21:50 EDT
Intracellular microlasers could allow precise labeling of a trillion individual cells
Investigators have induced structures incorporated within individual cells to produce laser light. The wavelengths of light emitted by these intracellular microlasers differ based on factors such as the size, shape and composition of each microlaser, allowing precise labeling of individual cells.
Wed, 29 Jul 2015 14:21:36 EDT
Tiny grains of rice hold big promise for greenhouse gas reductions, bioenergy
Rice is the staple food for more than half of the world's population, but the paddies it's grown in contributes up to 17 percent of global methane emissions -- about 100 million tons a year. Now, with the addition of a single gene, rice can be cultivated to emit virtually no methane, more starch for a richer food source and biomass for energy production.
Wed, 29 Jul 2015 14:19:15 EDT
Studies reveal details of error correction in cell division
Cell biologists report an advance in understanding the workings of an error correction mechanism that helps cells detect and correct mistakes in cell division early enough to prevent chromosome mis-segregation and aneuploidy, that is, having too many or too few chromosomes.
Wed, 29 Jul 2015 11:07:36 EDT
Study of birds' sense of smell reveals important clues for behavior, adaptation
From slight sparrows to preening peacocks to soaring falcons, birds have long been known to possess distinct abilities in their sense of smell, but little has been known about the evolution of olfaction. A large comparative genomic study of the olfactory genes tied to a bird's sense of smell has revealed important differences that correlate with their ecological niches and specific behaviors.
Wed, 29 Jul 2015 08:59:22 EDT
Stressed out plants send animal-like signals
For the first time, research has shown that, despite not having a nervous system, plants use signals normally associated with animals when they encounter stress.
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