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Genetics News
Fri, 27 Mar 2015 11:18:18 EDT
Long-standing mystery in membrane traffic solved
In 2013, James E. Rothman, Randy W. Schekman, and Thomas C. Südhof won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for their discoveries of molecular machineries for vesicle trafficking, a major transport system in cells for maintaining cellular processes. SNARE proteins are known as the minimal machinery for membrane fusion. Scientists now report that NSF/?-SNAP disassemble a single SNARE complex using various single-molecule biophysical methods that allow them to monitor and manipulate individual protein complexes.
Fri, 27 Mar 2015 09:09:02 EDT
Evolutionary novelties in vision
A new study shows that genes crucial for vision were multiplied in the early stages of vertebrate evolution and acquired distinct functions leading to the sophisticated mechanisms of vertebrate eyes.
Fri, 27 Mar 2015 09:06:15 EDT
MRI based on a sugar molecule can tell cancerous from noncancerous cells
Imaging tests like mammograms or CT scans can detect tumors, but figuring out whether a growth is or isn't cancer usually requires a biopsy to study cells directly. Now results of a study suggest that MRI could one day make biopsies more effective or even replace them altogether by noninvasively detecting telltale sugar molecules shed by the outer membranes of cancerous cells.
Thu, 26 Mar 2015 18:36:20 EDT
Honey bees use multiple genetic pathways to fight infections
Honey bees use different sets of genes, regulated by two distinct mechanisms, to fight off viruses, bacteria and gut parasites, according to researchers. The findings may help scientists develop honey bee treatments that are tailored to specific types of infections.
Thu, 26 Mar 2015 15:23:31 EDT
How did the chicken cross the sea?
It may sound like the makings of a joke, but answering the question of how chickens crossed the sea may soon provide more than just a punch line. Researchers have studied the mysterious ancestry of the feral chicken population that has overrun the Hawaiian Island of Kauai.
Thu, 26 Mar 2015 15:23:25 EDT
Researchers master gene editing technique in mosquito that transmits deadly diseases
Researchers have successfully harnessed a technique, CRISPR-Cas9 editing, to use in an important and understudied species: the mosquito, Aedes aegypti, which infects hundreds of millions of people annually with the deadly diseases chikungunya, yellow fever, and dengue fever.
Thu, 26 Mar 2015 15:14:26 EDT
Ebola whole virus vaccine shown effective, safe in primates
An Ebola whole virus vaccine, constructed using a novel experimental platform, has been shown to effectively protect monkeys exposed to the often fatal virus. It differs from other Ebola vaccines because as an inactivated whole virus vaccine, it primes the host immune system with the full complement of Ebola viral proteins and genes, potentially conferring greater protection.
Thu, 26 Mar 2015 13:08:29 EDT
Photosynthesis hack is needed to feed the world by 2050
Using high-performance computing and genetic engineering to boost the photosynthetic efficiency of plants offers the best hope of increasing crop yields enough to feed a planet expected to have 9.5 billion people on it by 2050, researchers report.
Thu, 26 Mar 2015 08:59:29 EDT
How lifeforms know to be the right size: Fruit fly study reveals new clues
In a new study, scientists are asking how life forms grow to be the correct size with proportional body parts. Probing deeply into genetics and biology at the earliest moments of embryonic development, researchers report that they have found new clues to explain one of nature's biggest mysteries. Their data from fruit flies show the size and patterning accuracy of an embryo depend on the amount of reproductive resources mothers invest in the process before an egg leaves the ovary.
Thu, 26 Mar 2015 08:33:02 EDT
Recycling histones through transcription
Cells reuse a part of the histones which are used to pack DNA, according to research conducted on yeast cells. However, researchers say that it is likely that similar mechanisms are important for human beings as well.
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