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Genetics News
Fri, 21 Nov 2014 10:29:20 EST
Natural resistance gene against spruce budworm found
A natural resistance gene against spruce budworm in the white spruce has been discovered. The breakthrough paves the way to identifying and selecting naturally resistant trees to replant forests devastated by the destructive pest.
Fri, 21 Nov 2014 08:59:44 EST
Cohesin: Cherry-shaped molecule safeguards cell-division
A cohesin molecule ensures the proper distribution of DNA during cell division. Scientists can now demonstrate the concept of its carabiner-like function by visualizing for the first time the open form of the complex.
Fri, 21 Nov 2014 08:27:46 EST
Novel regulatory mechanism for cell division found
A protein kinase or enzyme known as PKM2 has proven to control cell division, potentially providing a molecular basis for tumor diagnosis and treatment, researchers report. Understanding how cytokinesis goes awry is important since abnormal cell division impacts tumor cell growth and spread, they add.
Fri, 21 Nov 2014 03:32:30 EST
Key protein decrypted: Scientists develop 3D model of regulator protein bax
A new 3D model of the protein Bax, a key regulator of cell death, has been developed and released by researchers. When active, Bax forms pores in the membranes of mitochondria, causing the release of proteins from the intermembrane space into the cytoplasm. This in turn triggers a series of operations ending in cell death, which are often impaired in cancer cells. Using Double Electron-Electron Resonance spectroscopy, the research group has now shown that active Bax is present on the membrane in the form of dimeric assemblies whose clamp-like structures have a central role in the pore formation process.
Thu, 20 Nov 2014 14:17:50 EST
Why some people may be immune to HIV-1: Clues
Doctors have long been mystified as to why HIV-1 rapidly sickens some individuals, while in others the virus has difficulties gaining a foothold. Now, a study of genetic variation in HIV-1 and in the cells it infects has uncovered a chink in HIV-1's armor that may, at least in part, explain the puzzling difference -- and potentially open the door to new treatments.
Thu, 20 Nov 2014 14:17:00 EST
Genetic connivances of digits and genitals: Formation of these embryonic structures involves action of very similar group of genes
During the development of mammals, the growth and organization of digits are orchestrated by Hox genes, which are activated very early in precise regions of the embryo. These 'architect genes' are themselves regulated by a large piece of adjacent DNA. A new study reveals that this same DNA regulatory sequence also controls the architect genes during the development of the external genitals.
Thu, 20 Nov 2014 12:30:53 EST
Nitrogen sensor widespread in the plant kingdom
Quantitatively, nitrogen is one of the most important nutrients for the growth of plant organisms – from simple green algae to highly developed flowering plants. Nitrogen supply is essential for the development of all cell components, and as a good supply results in faster plant growth, it is commonly used as a fertiliser in agriculture.
Thu, 20 Nov 2014 12:30:19 EST
Unwinding the mysteries of the cellular clock
Underlying circadian rhythms is a clock built of transcription factors that control the oscillation of genes, serving as the wheels and springs of the clock. But, how does a single clock keep time in multiple phases at once? A genome-wide survey found that circadian genes and regulatory elements called enhancers oscillate daily in phase with nearby genes – both the enhancer and gene activity peak at the same time each day.
Thu, 20 Nov 2014 08:21:24 EST
Flu virus key machine: First complete view of structure revealed
Scientists looking to understand – and potentially thwart – the influenza virus now have a much more encompassing view, thanks to the first complete structure of one of the flu virus’ key machines. Knowing the structure allows researchers to finally understand how the machine works as a whole, and could prove instrumental in designing new drugs to treat serious flu infections and combat flu pandemics.
Wed, 19 Nov 2014 13:27:03 EST
New view of mouse genome finds many similarities, striking differences with human genome
Looking across the genomes of humans and mice, scientists have found that, in general, the systems that are used to control gene activity in both species have many similarities, along with crucial differences. The results may offer insights into gene regulation and other systems important to mammalian biology, and provide new information to determine when the mouse is an appropriate model to study human biology and disease. They may also help explain its limitations.
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