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Genetics News
Fri, 19 Dec 2014 10:41:52 EST
Gene critical for proper brain development discovered
A genetic pathway has been found that accounts for the extraordinary size of the human brain. The research team has identified a gene, KATNB1, as an essential component in a genetic pathway responsible for central nervous system development in humans and other animals.
Thu, 18 Dec 2014 21:01:00 EST
A clear, molecular view of how human color vision evolved
Many genetic mutations in visual pigments, spread over millions of years, were required for humans to evolve from a primitive mammal with a dim, shadowy view of the world into a greater ape able to see all the colors in a rainbow. Now, after more than two decades of painstaking research, scientists have finished a detailed and complete picture of the evolution of human color vision.
Thu, 18 Dec 2014 15:45:46 EST
Cell-associated HIV mucosal transmission: The neglected pathway
Scientists are challenging dogma about the transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Most research has focused on infection by free viral particles, while this group of researchers proposes that HIV is also transmitted by infected cells.
Thu, 18 Dec 2014 14:10:04 EST
Ibuprofen use leads to extended lifespan in several species, study shows
A common over-the-counter drug that tackles pain and fever may also hold keys to a longer, healthier life, according to a Texas A&M AgriLife Research scientist. Regular doses of ibuprofen extended the lifespan of multiple species.
Thu, 18 Dec 2014 14:09:54 EST
'Hairclip' protein mechanism explained
A new study describes, for the first time, a fundamental mechanism regulating a protein's shape. The 'Hairclip' mechanism involves mutations acting on one side of a protein to open or close the configuration of amino acids on the other. The findings have implications for the manipulation of proteins, with potential applications in biotechnology and drug development.
Thu, 18 Dec 2014 08:10:10 EST
Researchers discover protein protecting against chlorine
Chlorine is a common disinfectant that is used to kill bacteria, for example in swimming pools and drinking water supplies. Our immune system also produces chlorine, which causes proteins in bacteria to lose their natural folding. These unfolded proteins then begin to clump and lose their function. Now researchers have discovered a protein in the intestinal bacterium E. coli that protects bacteria from chlorine. In the presence of chlorine, it tightly bonds with other proteins, thus preventing them from coagulating.
Wed, 17 Dec 2014 14:10:35 EST
Multiple allergic reactions traced to single protein
A single protein has been identified as the root of painful and dangerous allergic reactions to a range of medications and other substances. If a new drug can be found that targets the problematic protein, researchers say, it could help smooth treatment for patients with conditions ranging from prostate cancer to diabetes to HIV.
Wed, 17 Dec 2014 11:36:56 EST
New class of synthetic molecules mimics antibodies
The first synthetic molecules that have both the targeting and response functions of antibodies have been crafted by scientists. The new molecules -- synthetic antibody mimics -- attach themselves simultaneously to disease cells and disease-fighting cells. The result is a highly targeted immune response, similar to the action of natural human antibodies.
Wed, 17 Dec 2014 10:13:12 EST
Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria syndrome: Substance from broccoli can moderate defects
Children who suffer from Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria syndrome age prematurely due to a defective protein in their cells. Scientists have now identified another important pathological factor: the system responsible for removing cellular debris and for breaking down defective proteins operates at lower levels in HGPS cells than in normal cells. The researchers have succeeded in reactivating protein breakdown in HGPS cells and thus reducing disease-related defects by using a substance from broccoli.
Wed, 17 Dec 2014 07:45:06 EST
Predicting antibiotic resistance
Treating bacterial infections with antibiotics is becoming increasingly difficult as bacteria develop resistance not only to the antibiotics being used against them, but also to ones they have never encountered before. By analyzing genetic and phenotypic changes in antibiotic-resistant strains of E. coli, researchers have revealed a common set of features that appear to be responsible for the development of resistance to several types of antibiotics.
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