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Genetics News
Mon, 19 Feb 2018 11:53:04 EST
Pattern formation: The paradoxical role of turbulence
The formation of self-organizing molecular patterns in cells is a critical component of many biological processes. Researchers have proposed a new theory to explain how such patterns emerge in complex natural systems.
Mon, 19 Feb 2018 11:52:58 EST
Duplicate genes help animals resolve sexual conflict
Duplicate copies of a gene shared by male and female fruit flies have evolved to resolve competing demands between the sexes. New genetic analysis describes how these copies have evolved separate male- and female-specific functions that are crucial to reproduction and fertility.
Mon, 19 Feb 2018 10:32:56 EST
How the insulin receptor works
As we are approaching the 100th anniversary of the discovery of insulin, a wide array of its signaling pathways has been defined. However, the initial step in insulin action, i.e. the engagement with its cell-surface receptor and the resulting conformational change, which propagates across the plasma membrane to the intracellular module, remains poorly understood.
Mon, 19 Feb 2018 10:24:13 EST
An enzyme's evolution from changing electric fields and resisting antibiotics
Bacteria can produce enzymes that make them resistant to antibiotics; one example is the TEM beta-lactamase enzyme, which enables bacteria to develop a resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics, such as penicillin and cephalosporins. Researchers are now studying how an enzyme changes and becomes antibiotic-resistant.
Sun, 18 Feb 2018 13:59:07 EST
Studying mitosis' structure to understand the inside of cancer cells
Cell division is an intricately choreographed ballet of proteins and molecules that divide the cell. During mitosis, microtubule-organizing centers assemble the spindle fibers that separate the copying chromosomes of DNA. While scientists are familiar with MTOCs' existence and the role they play in cell division, their actual physical structure remains poorly understood. Researchers are now trying to decipher their molecular architecture.
Sun, 18 Feb 2018 13:59:01 EST
Ras protein's role in spreading cancer
Protein systems make up the complex signaling pathways that control whether a cell divides or, in some cases, metastasizes. Ras proteins have long been the focus of cancer research because of their role as 'on/off switch' signaling pathways that control cell division and failure to die like healthy cells do. Now, a team of researchers has been able to study precisely how Ras proteins interact with cell membrane surfaces.
Sun, 18 Feb 2018 13:58:58 EST
Using mutant bacteria to study how changes in membrane proteins affect cell functions
Fri, 16 Feb 2018 17:47:38 EST
Scientists shed light on biological roots of individuality
A new study illuminates the biology that guides behavior across different stages of life in worms, and suggests how variations in specific neuromodulators in the developing nervous system may lead to occasional variations.
Fri, 16 Feb 2018 15:03:38 EST
Cells communicate in a dynamic code
Scientists discover an unexpectedly dynamic vocabulary for the language of cellular communication.
Fri, 16 Feb 2018 11:05:18 EST
New light shed on how plants get their nitrogen fix
Legumes are widely-consumed plants that use soil bacteria to obtain nitrogen through root nodulation. The process is energetically costly, and so legumes inhibit nodulation when soil nitrate is available. However, the mechanism that drives this inhibition is unknown. Researchers found that NRSYM1 is responsible for inhibiting nodulation in the presence of nitrate, and acts by directly regulating gene expression. The findings may aid agricultural efforts to improve the crop efficiency of legumes.
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