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Genetics News
Wed, 27 Aug 2014 15:17:52 EDT
Water 'thermostat' could help engineer drought-resistant crops
A gene that could help engineer drought-resistant crops has been identified by researchers. The gene, called OSCA1, encodes a protein in the cell membrane of plants that senses changes in water availability and adjusts the plant's water conservation machinery accordingly. The findings could make it easier to feed the world's growing population in the face of climate change.
Wed, 27 Aug 2014 14:14:06 EDT
Dosage of HIV drug may be ineffective for half of African-Americans
Many African-Americans may not be getting effective doses of the HIV drug maraviroc because they are more likely than European-Americans to inherit functional copies of a protein that speeds the removal of the drug from the body.
Wed, 27 Aug 2014 13:17:51 EDT
Shared biology in human, fly and worm genomes: Powerful commonalities in biological activity, regulation
Researchers analyzing human, fly, and worm genomes have found that these species have a number of key genomic processes in common, reflecting their shared ancestry. The findings offer insights into embryonic development, gene regulation and other biological processes vital to understanding human biology and disease.
Wed, 27 Aug 2014 13:16:56 EDT
Evolution used similar molecular toolkits to shape flies, worms, and humans
Although separated by hundreds of millions of years of evolution, flies, worms, and humans share ancient patterns of gene expression, according to a massive analysis of genomic data. Two related studies tell a similar story: even though humans, worms, and flies bear little obvious similarity to each other, evolution used remarkably similar molecular toolkits to shape them.
Wed, 27 Aug 2014 11:18:11 EDT
Statistical approach for calculating environmental influences in genome-wide association study (GWAS) results
A statistical model allows researchers to remove false positive findings that plague modern research when many dozens of factors and their interactions are suggested to play a role in causing complex diseases.
Wed, 27 Aug 2014 10:02:24 EDT
Why Listeria bacterium is so hard to fight
The harmful and potentially deadly bacterium Listeria is extremely good at adapting to changes. Now research uncovers exactly how cunning Listeria is and why it is so hard to fight. The discovery can help develop more efficient ways to combat the bacteria.
Wed, 27 Aug 2014 09:19:54 EDT
Photosynthesis: Researchers observe protein quake
One of nature’s mysteries is how plants survive impact by the huge amounts of energy contained in the sun’s rays, while using this energy for photosynthesis. The hypothesis is that the light-absorbing proteins in the plant’s blades quickly dissipate the energy throughout the entire protein molecule through so-called protein quakes. Researchers have now managed to successfully ‘film’ this process.
Wed, 27 Aug 2014 09:19:52 EDT
Salmon recolonizing newly reconnected zones in rivers of Adour basin
The impact of constructing passes that allow salmon to cross hydroelectric dams and recoloniae newly reconnected zones in the Adour basin has been the focus of recent study. Using population genetics tools, researchers have shown that the sources of this recolonization are very probably the sectors downstream of these passes and that little genetic diversity is lost during recolonization of the newly available zones.  These results suggest a strong potential for the evolution of these newly formed populations.
Tue, 26 Aug 2014 20:53:40 EDT
Attacking a rare disease at its source with gene therapy
The two main treatments for MPS I are bone marrow transplantation and intravenous enzyme replacement therapy, but these are only marginally effective or clinically impractical, especially when the disease strikes the central nervous system. Using an animal model, a team has proven the efficacy of a more elegant way to restore aberrant protein levels in the body through direct gene transfer.
Tue, 26 Aug 2014 09:10:53 EDT
Cancer leaves common fingerprint on DNA
Regardless of their stage or type, cancers appear to share a telltale signature of widespread changes to the so-called epigenome, according to a team of researchers. In a study, the investigators say they have found widespread and distinctive changes in a broad variety of cancers to chemical marks known as methyl groups attached to DNA, which help govern whether genes are turned 'on' or 'off.'
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