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Fri, 27 May 2016 13:33:35 EDT
Zika virus infects human placental macrophages
One of Zika's mysteries is how the virus passes from an infected mother, through the placenta, to a developing fetus. The route may not be direct either -- transmission via multiple cell types may be necessary. A new study supports the possibility that placental immune cells called Hofbauer cells, which have direct access to fetal blood vessels, are one cell type involved.
Fri, 27 May 2016 12:30:41 EDT
Rethinking hospital alarms
On average, there are about 480,000 patients in hospitals in the United States -- each generating about 135 clinical alarms per day. But studies show that more than 90 percent of these alarms result in no action, and alarm errors occur roughly 8 million times per day.
Fri, 27 May 2016 11:30:00 EDT
First-of-its-kind procedure combines scalp, skull, kidney and pancreas transplant
Simultaneous transplantation of a "composite" skull and scalp flap plus a kidney and pancreas -- all from the same donor -- provided excellent outcomes for a patient with a non-healing scalp defect and declining organ kidney and pancreas function, according to a report.
Fri, 27 May 2016 09:10:54 EDT
Using virtual users to develop accessible ICT-based applications
In a new report, researchers report the development of a set of parametric cognitive virtual models of users with disabilities that can be used to simulate the user interaction with Information and communications technology (ICT) applications. This simulation will allow researchers to develop more efficient and accessible ICT applications for people with functional limitations and disabilities.
Fri, 27 May 2016 09:10:52 EDT
New model of T cell activation
Biologists show that cholesterol prevents an immune response, even when no antigen is present. T cell receptors are an important part of the human immune system. They are able to switch their conformation from an inactive to an active state spontaneously without any antigens present. Cholesterol binds and stabilizes inactive receptors, giving it a decisive role in the activation of a T cell, the study shows.
Fri, 27 May 2016 09:09:16 EDT
Rapid bone growth and underwater breathing: Putting the science of Harry Potter’s universe to the test
In the world of Harry Potter the young wizard undergoes two magical biological transformations: eating Gillyweed to grow gills in order to breathe underwater and drinking Skele-Gro to repair broken bones. Students have put these arcane medical practices to the test -- and have concluded that a little magic might indeed be required in both situations to make them scientifically feasible.
Fri, 27 May 2016 09:09:12 EDT
Predicting the spread of the Zika virus
A new tool predicts the risk of Zika virus importation and local transmission for 189 countries.
Fri, 27 May 2016 09:06:50 EDT
Vitamin nicotinamide riboside protects mice from diabetes complications
A naturally occurring vitamin, nicotinamide riboside, can improve metabolic symptoms and prevent peripheral nerve damage in mouse models of diabetes, according to a new study.
Fri, 27 May 2016 09:06:42 EDT
Restoring chemotherapy sensitivity by boosting microRNA levels
By increasing the level of a specific microRNA (miRNA) molecule, researchers have for the first time restored chemotherapy sensitivity in vitro to a line of human pancreatic cancer cells that had developed resistance to a common treatment drug.
Fri, 27 May 2016 09:06:38 EDT
Study finds that protein puts the brakes on melanin
Skin, eye and hair pigmentation requires a delicate balance of acidity within the cellular compartments where melanin is made -- that balance is partly regulated, scientists now know, by a protein called TPC2.
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