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Microbiology News
Wed, 27 Aug 2014 15:17:48 EDT
Encyclopedia of how genomes function gets much bigger
A big step in understanding the mysteries of the human genome has been unveiled in the form of three analyses that provide the most detailed comparison yet of how the genomes of the fruit fly, roundworm, and human function. The analyses will likely offer insights into how the information in the human genome regulates development, and how it is responsible for diseases.
Wed, 27 Aug 2014 13:17:51 EDT
Shared biology in human, fly and worm genomes: Powerful commonalities in biological activity, regulation
Researchers analyzing human, fly, and worm genomes have found that these species have a number of key genomic processes in common, reflecting their shared ancestry. The findings offer insights into embryonic development, gene regulation and other biological processes vital to understanding human biology and disease.
Wed, 27 Aug 2014 13:16:56 EDT
Evolution used similar molecular toolkits to shape flies, worms, and humans
Although separated by hundreds of millions of years of evolution, flies, worms, and humans share ancient patterns of gene expression, according to a massive analysis of genomic data. Two related studies tell a similar story: even though humans, worms, and flies bear little obvious similarity to each other, evolution used remarkably similar molecular toolkits to shape them.
Wed, 27 Aug 2014 11:18:58 EDT
Greenhouse gases: New group of soil micro-organisms can contribute to their elimination
The ability of soils to eliminate N2O can mainly be explained by the diversity and abundance of a new group of micro-organisms that are capable of transforming it into atmospheric nitrogen (N2).
Wed, 27 Aug 2014 11:18:11 EDT
Statistical Approach for Calculating Environmental Influences in Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) Results
A statistical model allows researchers to remove false positive findings that plague modern research when many dozens of factors and their interactions are suggested to play a role in causing complex diseases.
Wed, 27 Aug 2014 10:02:24 EDT
Why Listeria bacterium is so hard to fight
The harmful and potentially deadly bacterium Listeria is extremely good at adapting to changes. Now research uncovers exactly how cunning Listeria is and why it is so hard to fight. The discovery can help develop more efficient ways to combat the bacteria.
Tue, 26 Aug 2014 20:55:15 EDT
New estrogen-based compound suppresses binge-like eating behavior in female mice
The hormone estrogen can specifically trigger brain serotonin neurons to inhibit binge eating in female mice, researchers report. They add that this result is consistent with data in humans. "We can speculate that in women who develop binge eating who also happen to have irregular menstrual cycles, it is probably because their estrogen function is somehow damaged, which is what leads to the development of binge eating," said the study's lead author.
Tue, 26 Aug 2014 20:53:40 EDT
Attacking a rare disease at its source with gene therapy
The two main treatments for MPS I are bone marrow transplantation and intravenous enzyme replacement therapy, but these are only marginally effective or clinically impractical, especially when the disease strikes the central nervous system. Using an animal model, a team has proven the efficacy of a more elegant way to restore aberrant protein levels in the body through direct gene transfer.
Tue, 26 Aug 2014 09:10:53 EDT
Cancer leaves common fingerprint on DNA
Regardless of their stage or type, cancers appear to share a telltale signature of widespread changes to the so-called epigenome, according to a team of researchers. In a study, the investigators say they have found widespread and distinctive changes in a broad variety of cancers to chemical marks known as methyl groups attached to DNA, which help govern whether genes are turned 'on' or 'off.'
Tue, 26 Aug 2014 09:10:51 EDT
RNA sequence could help doctors to tailor unique prostate cancer treatment programs
Sequencing RNA, not just DNA, could help doctors predict how prostate cancer tumors will respond to treatment, according to research. Because a tumor's RNA shows the real time changes a treatment is causing, the authors think this could be a useful tool to aid diagnosis and predict which treatment will most benefit individual cancer patients.
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