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Molecular Biology News
Thu, 17 Apr 2014 12:47:08 EDT
Proper stem cell function requires hydrogen sulfide
Stem cells in bone marrow need to produce hydrogen sulfide in order to properly multiply and form bone tissue, according to a new study. Researchers demonstrated that mice's osteoporosis-like condition could be rescued by administering small molecules that release hydrogen sulfide inside the body. The results indicate that a similar treatment may have potential to help human patients.
Thu, 17 Apr 2014 12:43:58 EDT
Discovery could lead to novel therapies for Fragile X syndrome
Scientists studying the most common form of inherited mental disability -- a genetic disease called 'Fragile X syndrome' -- have uncovered new details about the cellular processes responsible for the condition that could lead to the development of therapies to restore some of the capabilities lost in affected individuals.
Thu, 17 Apr 2014 09:08:36 EDT
Rapid, accurate mRNA detection in plant tissues
Messenger RNA (mRNA) plays an important role in gene expression, and examining the types and amounts of mRNA present in an organism allows researchers to answer key questions about gene expression and regulation. A recent study shows that RNAScope ISH (developed for studies in animal -- particularly human -- tissues) is faster and more sensitive than traditional ISH in detecting and quantifying mRNA in plants.
Wed, 16 Apr 2014 16:26:36 EDT
Tracking down cause of eye mobility disorder
Imagine you cannot move your eyes up, and you cannot lift your upper eyelid. You walk through life with your head tilted upward so that your eyes look straight when they are rolled down in the eye socket. Obviously, such a condition should be corrected to allow people a normal position of their head. In order to correct this condition, one would need to understand why this happens. In a new paper, researchers describe how their studies on mutated mice mimic human mutations.
Wed, 16 Apr 2014 16:26:34 EDT
For cells, internal stress leads to unique shapes
A cell's unique shape results from an internal tug-of-war: the cell needs to maintain structural integrity while also dynamically responding to the pushes and pulls of mechanical stress, researchers have discovered. The researchers studied the supportive microtubule arrangement in the tissue of pavement cells from the first leaves -- or cotyledons -- of a young Arabidopsis thaliana plant.
Wed, 16 Apr 2014 16:25:16 EDT
Mutant protein in muscle linked to neuromuscular disorder
Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA) is a rare inherited neuromuscular disorder characterized by slowly progressive muscle weakness and atrophy. In a new study, a team of scientists say novel mouse studies indicate that mutant protein levels in muscle cells are fundamentally involved in SBMA, suggesting an alternative and promising new avenue of treatment.
Wed, 16 Apr 2014 14:33:13 EDT
How intestinal cells build nutrient-absorbing surface
The 'brush border' -- a densely packed array of finger-like projections called microvilli -- covers the surfaces of the cells that line our intestines. Researchers have now discovered how intestinal cells build this specialized structure, which is critical for absorbing nutrients and defending against pathogens. The findings reveal a role for adhesion molecules in brush border assembly and increase our understanding of intestinal pathologies associated with inherited and infectious diseases.
Wed, 16 Apr 2014 13:33:38 EDT
Hide and seek: Revealing camouflaged bacteria
A protein family that plays a central role in the fight against the bacterial pathogen Salmonella within the cells has been discovered by researchers. The so called interferon-induced GTPases reveal and eliminate the bacterium's camouflage in the cell, enabling the cell to recognize the pathogen and to render it innocuous.
Wed, 16 Apr 2014 13:32:53 EDT
Sperm meets egg: Protein essential for fertilization discovered
Interacting proteins on the surface of the sperm and the egg have been discovered by researchers. These are essential to begin mammalian life. These proteins, which allow the sperm and egg to recognize one another, offer new paths towards improved fertility treatments and the development of new contraceptives.
Wed, 16 Apr 2014 11:28:10 EDT
Pressure relief valve in cellular membrane identified
Regulation of cell volume is critical for the body’s cells, for example during cellular exposure to fluids of varying salt concentrations, in cell division and cell growth, but also in diseases such as cancer, stroke and myocardial infarction. A certain chloride channel, a membrane protein that allows the passage of the chloride ion, is of crucial importance in volume regulation.
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