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ABCG and ABCA Regulation of Sterol Metabolism

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Description

ATP Binding Cassette transporters comprise a large family of membrane-spanning proteins that are responsible for transporting a variety of substrates in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. The most intriguing and, arguably, the most important membrane proteins for this purpose are the ABC (ATP-Binding Cassette) transporters. These proteins, found in all species, use the energy of ATP hydrolysis to translocate specific substrates across cellular membranes. Many of these transporters are responsible for the translocation of lipophilic substrates such as phospholipids, bile acids, and sterols (Ref.1 & 2).

Beta-Sitosterol and other plant sterols are directly transported back to the gut lumen by the heterodimeric ABCG5-ABCG8 complex by means of a sort of kickback mechanism, which may also efflux cholesterol, thereby regulating total sterol absorption. The [...]

References:

1.Structure and mechanism of ABC transporters.
Wilkens S.
F1000Prime Rep. 2015 Feb 3;7:14. doi: 10.12703/P7-14. eCollection 2015. Review.
2.Tracing the structural evolution of eukaryotic ATP binding cassette transporter superfamily.
Xiong J, Feng J, Yuan D, Zhou J, Miao W.
Sci Rep. 2015 Nov 18;5:16724. doi: 10.1038/srep16724.
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