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Airway Pathology in COPD

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Cigarette smoking is a worldwide epidemic, and it is one of the main preventable causes of death and disability. Chronic inhalation of cigarette smoke alters a wide range of immunological functions, including innate and adaptive immune responses. Cigarette smoking significantly increases the risk of heart disease, lung cancer and microbial infections (such as respiratory infections, periodontitis and bacterial meningitis)(Ref.1). Tobacco use is also associated with delayed recovery from injuries and a higher incidence of atherosclerosis, COPD (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease), Crohn’s disease, RA (Rheumatoid Arthritis) and cancers of the lung, mouth, larynx, oesophagus and bladder (Ref.2). COPD is a widespread chronic lung disorder which includes (a) chronic obstructive bronchitis with fibrosis and obstruction of small airways and (b) emphysema with [...]


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