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14-3-3 and Cell Cycle Regulation Recently Updated
The 14-3-3 proteins are a family of highly conserved proteins that play important roles in a wide range of cellular processes including signal transduction, apoptosis, cell cycle progression, and checkpoint activation within all eukaryotic cells. These 28–33 kDa helical molecules include nine isotypes (Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Delta, Epsilon, Eta, Sigma, [...]
 
14-3-3 and Regulation of BAD Activity
Apoptosis plays a critical role in normal development as well as in the pathophysiology of a variety of diseases, such as cancer. It is tightly regulated, and a pivotal component of this regulation is the BCL2 (B-Cell CLL/Lymphoma-2) family of pro- and antiapoptotic proteins. Its members include pro-apoptotic proteins (e.g., [...]
 
14-3-3 Induced Apoptosis
Apoptosis is a physiological process of cell death that plays a critical role in normal development as well as in the pathophysiology of a variety of diseases. The fundamental cellular mechanism behind apoptosis is due to a balance between anti-apoptotic and pro-apoptotic factors, which may be shifted by extracellular signals. [...]
 
14-3-3 Induced Intracellular Signaling
The 14-3-3 proteins are a family of conserved adaptor and scaffolding proteins expressed in all eukaryotic cells. It has evolved from a brain-specific protein to a family of ubiquitously expressed regulatory molecules of eukaryotic organisms. A striking feature of the 14-3-3 proteins is their ability to bind a multitude of [...]
 
4-1BB Pathway Recently Updated
The activation of a naive T-Cell requires two signals: ligation of the TCR (T-Cell Receptor) with the MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex)/peptide complex on the APC (Antigen Presenting Cell) and cross-linking of costimulatory receptors on the T-Cell with the corresponding ligands on the APC. Cross-linking of CD28 on T-Cells with B7-1 [...]
 
ABA Signaling in Arabidopsis Stomatal Guard Cells
Plants have pores, Stomata, on their leaf surfaces that allow CO2 (Carbon Dioxide) in for photosynthesis and through which water evaporates. The specific cells that border and define these pores are Guard Cells. Guard Cells literally guard the size of the pore by alternately swelling, which opens the pore, or [...]
 
ABC Transporters in Cholestatic Hepatocytes
A cell must selectively translocate molecules across its plasma membrane to maintain the chemical composition of its cytoplasm distinct from that of the surrounding milieu. The most intriguing and, arguably, the most important membrane proteins for this purpose are the ABC (ATP-Binding Cassette) transporters. These proteins, found in all species, [...]
 
Actin Nucleation and Branching
The actin family is a diverse and evolutionarily ancient group of proteins that provide the supportive framework to the three-dimensional structure of eukaryotic cells. It provides the forces that enable the cell to adopt a variety of shapes and to undertake directed movements. Certain cell types, such as polymorphonuclear leukocytes, [...]
 
Actin Nucleation by ARP-WASP Complex
Actin Nucleation By ARP-WASP Complex For many cell types, the ability to move across a solid surface is fundamental to their biological function. Certain aspects of cell locomotion, such as the protrusion of the plasma membrane in lamellipodia and filopodia, are driven by the polymerization of actin cytoskeleton. The actin [...]
 
Actin-Based Motility by Rho Family GTPases
In response to a variety of extracellular stimuli, actin filament assembly at the leading edge of motile cells causes protrusion during cell crawling and chemotaxis, nerve growth and cell spreading. The actin filament network immediately under the plasma membrane in regions of rapid cellular protrusion consists of short, branched filaments [...]
 
Activation of cAMP-Dependent PKA
cAMP (Cyclic 3', 5'-Adenosine Monophosphate)-dependent Protein Kinase, commonly known as PKA (Protein Kinase-A), is a second messenger-dependent enzyme that has been implicated in a wide range of cellular processes, including transcription, metabolism, cell cycle progression and apoptosis. Known modulators of PKA activity include factors that either activate or inhibit AC (Adenylate Cyclase), [...]
 
Activation of NF-KappaB by PKR
PKR (Protein Kinase-R) is a 68-kDa serine–threonine kinase that appears to play a primary role in mediating the antiviral activities of infected cells. PKR mediates apoptosis induced by many different stimuli, such as LPS (Lipopolysaccharides), TNF-Alpha (Tumour Necrosis Factor-Alpha), viral infection, or serum starvation. Viral infection leads to the increased [...]
 
Activation of PKA through GPCR
PKA (Protein Kinase-A) is a second messenger-dependent enzyme that has been implicated in a wide range of cellular processes, including transcription, metabolism, cell cycle progression and apoptosis. Known modulators of PKA activity include factors that either activate or inhibit AC (Adenylate Cyclase), resulting in an increase or decrease in cAMP (Cyclic Adenosine [...]
 
Activation of PKC through GPCR
PKC (Protein Kinase-C) is a cyclic nucleotide-independent enzyme that phosphorylates serine and threonine residues in many target proteins. PKC plays a pivotal role in mediating cellular responses to extracellular stimuli involved in proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, and exocytotic release in a number of non-neuronal systems such as Islet cells, Chromaffin cells [...]
 
Agranulocyte Adhesion and Diapedesis Recently Updated
Cell adhesion and migration is the fundamental feature of multicellular organisms during defense mechanisms, where leukocytes play the central role. They bind bacteria, parasites, viruses, tumor cells etc. Furthermore, their interactions with the endothelium are of special importance. The migration of leukocytes or WBCs (White Blood Cells) from the vascular [...]
 
Agrin Interactions at Neuromuscular Junction Recently Updated
The development of the NMJ (Neuromuscular Junction) is triggered by agrin, a signaling factor that is deposited by the nerve terminal at the site of contact with the muscle cell. Motor neuron-derived agrin induces many aspects of synaptic differentiation and is required for the postsynaptic localization of many synapse-specific basal [...]
 
AHR Pathway
AHR (Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor) is a member of the bHLH (basic Helix–Loop–Helix)- PAS (Per-ARNT-Sim) family of transcriptional regulators that control a variety of developmental and physiological events, including Neurogenesis, Tracheal and Salivary duct formation, Toxin metabolism, Circadian rhythms, response to Hypoxia and Hormone Receptor function. The unique feature of all [...]
 
AIF Pathway
Multicellular organisms eliminate supernumerary, damaged or harmful cells by programmed cell death. This process of cell suicide, defined morphologically as apoptosis, is critical for developmental morphogenesis, tissue homeostasis and defence against pathogens (Ref.1). The activation of apoptotic cascades triggers a series of events, one of which is the condensation and [...]
 
Airway Inflammation in Asthma
Asthma is a complex, chronic inflammatory lung disease that is characterized by epithelial shedding, airway smooth muscle hypertrophy and hyperplasia, overproduction of mucus, and airway inflammation. The pathophysiology of asthma has been attributed to an inflammatory process that occurs predominantly in the large airways (Ref.1) by the accumulation of eosinophils [...]
 
Airway Pathology in COPD
Cigarette smoking is a worldwide epidemic, and it is one of the main preventable causes of death and disability. Chronic inhalation of cigarette smoke alters a wide range of immunological functions, including innate and adaptive immune responses. Cigarette smoking significantly increases the risk of heart disease, lung cancer and microbial [...]
 
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