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Phospholipid Biosynthesis in E. coli
Biological membranes are composed of hundreds of distinct proteins and phospholipids. Phospholipids are diacylglycerol derivatives with a hydrophilic, zwitter ionic, often charged headgroup at position C3 of the glycerol backbone. The properties of phospholipids give lipid bilayer membranes their self-organizing structure. Phospholipids are usually composed of two fatty acid chains esterified to [...]
Phospholipid Biosynthesis in S. cerevisiae
Phospholipids are key molecules that contribute to the structural definition of cells and participate in the regulation of cellular processes. The major Phospholipids which occur in the membranes of mitotically growing S. cerevisiae (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) cells are PC (Phosphatidylcholine), PE (Phosphatidylethanolamine), PI/PtdIns (Phosphatidylinositol) and PS (Phosphatidylserine). Mitochondrial membranes contain PG [...]
Polyamine Metabolism in Intestinal Cells
The amino-acid derived polyamines have long been associated with cell growth and cancer, and specific oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes regulate polyamine metabolism. Polyamines are organic cations that are derived from amino acids and occur in all organisms. Putrescine, Spermidine and Spermine are the main polyamines found in prokaryotes and [...]
Retinol Metabolism in Human Liver
Vitamin-A (all-trans-Retinol), one of the essential micronutrient in the human is obtained chiefly in form of Retinyl Esters from meat, and Carotenoids, such as Beta-Carotene, from plant tissue. Beta-carotene and other Carotenoids are converted by the body into Retinol and are referred to as Provitamin-A Carotenoids. Hundreds of different Carotenoids [...]
Salvage Pathway from Serine to Phosphatidylcholine
Phosphatidylserine (or 1, 2-Diacyl-sn-Glycero-3-Phospho-L-Serine) is the only amino acid-containing glycerophospholipid in animal cells. Although it is distributed widely among animals, plants and microorganisms, it is usually less than 10% of the total phospholipids, the greatest concentration being in myelin from brain tissue. It is an acidic (anionic) phospholipid with three [...]
Serine Metabolism in C. tetani E88
Tetanus disease is one of the most dramatic and globally prevalent diseases of humans and vertebrate animals. The manifestation of the disease, spastic paralysis, is caused by the second most poisonous substance known, the Tetanus toxin (Ref.1). The causative agent of Tetanus disease is C. tetani (Clostridium tetani), an anaerobic [...]
Sphingolipid Metabolism and Apoptosis
The Golgi occupies a key position in the secretory membrane system of cells. Its most fundamental task is to act as a filter between the glycerolipid-rich ER (Endoplasmic Reticulum) and sterol/sphingolipid-rich plasma membrane. The cis-Golgi network, also called ER-Golgi intermediate compartment, forms the site where ER-derived cargo is received and [...]
Steroid Biosynthesis in Adrenal Cortex
Steroid hormones are lipophilic, low-molecular weight compounds derived from Cholesterol that play important physiological roles. The steroid hormones are synthesized mainly by Endocrine Glands such as the the Adrenal Cortex and the Gonads (Ovary and Testes), and are then released into the blood circulation. There are five major classes of [...]
Steroidogenesis in X. laevis Ovary
Ovarian sex steroid production is essential for Follicular growth and subsequent Ovulation in Xenopus laevis. In the Xenopus ovary, Oocytes are arrested in an immature form in the Cell Cycle at Prophase-I boundary of the first meiotic cycle, and grow to their maximal size. Prophase-I arrest is terminated by specific [...]
Sterol Biosynthesis in A. thaliana
Sterols are a structurally conserved class of lipids that play multifaceted roles in Eukaryotes, serving as essential components of Cell membranes and precursors to Steroid hormones. Characterized by a –OH group on the C3 of the Steroid nucleus, Sterols represent the most abundant type of Steroids in Vertebrates as well [...]
Sucrose Synthesis
Sucrose is the major product of photosynthesis in most plants and is exported from leaves to all heterotrophic tissues. The starting point for sucrose synthesis is activated glucose, UDP-glucose. The synthesis of disaccharides in general takes place through a monosaccharide intermediate activated by the addition of a nucleotide group. UDP-glucose [...]
Synthesis of Cardiolipin and Phosphatidylinositol
Phosphoglycerides such as phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylserine are the major component of lipid bilayer membranes in which their detergent-like properties help to provide membranes the quality of self-assembly. Phosphatidylglycerol is a precursor in the synthesis of both cardiolipin and PI (Phosphatidylinositol). Cardiolipin is a unique dimeric phospholipid found in the heart [...]
Synthesis of Pyrimidine Ribonucleotides
Synthesis of the Pyrimidines is less complex than that of the Purines, since the base is much simpler. Synthesis of Carbamoyl-P (Carbamoyl Phosphate) is the first reaction of Pyrimidine biosynthesis. Carbamoyl-P is formed from HCO3- (Bicarbonate) and the amide nitrogen of Glutamine by the cytosolic enzyme CPSase (Carbamoyl Phosphate Synthetase). [...]
Taurine and Hypotaurine Metabolism
Taurine is a nonprotein Amino acid. It is an end product of L-Cysteine metabolism and the principal free intracellular Amino acid in many tissues of humans and other animal species. Taurine is present in high amounts in the brain, retina, myocardium, skeletal and smooth muscle, platelets and neutrophils. It is [...]
Threonine Metabolism in C. jejuni NCTC11168
The Gram-negative, slender spiral-shaped, motile, asaccharolytic bacterium C. jejuni (Campylobacter jejuni) is commensal in cattle, swine, and birds. Campylobacteriosis is the illness caused by C. jejuni and is often known as Campylobacter Enteritis or human bacterial Gastroenteritis. Typical symptoms of C. jejuni foodborne illness include severe abdominal pain, diarrhea, fever, [...]
Threonine Metabolism in C. jejuni RM1221
The genome of C. jejuni RM1221 (Campylobacter jejuni RM1221) is a single circular chromosome, 1,777,831 bp in length, with an average G+C content of 30.31 percent. There are a total of 1,884 predicted coding regions in the genome with an average ORF (Open Reading Frame) length of 885 bp. The [...]
Threonine Metabolism in C. tetani E88
Tetanus disease is one of the most dramatic and globally prevalent diseases of humans and vertebrate animals. The manifestation of the disease, spastic paralysis, is caused by the second most poisonous substance known, the Tetanus toxin (Ref.1). The causative agent of Tetanus disease is C. tetani (Clostridium tetani), an anaerobic [...]
Threonine Metabolism in E. faecalis
Enterococci are Gram-positive, facultative anaerobic and Lactic acid producing bacteria. Most strains are non-hemolytic. E. faecalis (Enterococcus faecalis), also known as S. faecalis (Streptococcus faecalis), the second most frequent enterococcal species, is a saprophytic commensal that inhabits the oral cavity and gastrointestinal flora of humans and animals and behaves as [...]
Threonine Metabolism in H. hepaticus
H. hepaticus (Helicobacter hepaticus) are motile and Gram-negative, curved to spiral in shape, with one to several spirals; and it has bipolar sheathed flagella (one at each end) but lacks the periplasmic fibers that envelope the bacterial cells in other mouse Helicobacter species. It grows microaerobically at 37ºC but not [...]
Threonine Metabolism in H. pylori 26695
The Gram-negative, micro-aerophilic, spiral-shaped and flagellated bacteria, H. pylori (Helicobacter pylori) are associated with the pathogenesis of Gastric inflammation and Peptic ulcer disease. Presence of H. pylori in the gastric mucosa is associated with Gastritis and is often implicated in Peptic ulceration and Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue Lymphomas. The H. pylori [...]
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