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Biosynthesis of Sphingolipids
Sphingolipids are structural components of the cell membrane plays a key role in the regulation of cellular processes. The products of sphingolipid metabolism may act as secondary messengers in cellular signal transduction pathways. Cell signaling pertaining to sphingolipids involves inducing apoptosis, cell cycle arrest and cell growth. There are multiple [...]
Biosynthesis of Steroid Hormones
Steroid hormones are crucial substances for the proper functioning of the body. They mediate a wide variety of vital physiological functions ranging from anti-inflammatory agents to regulating events during pregnancy. Typically, endocrinologists classify steroid hormones into five major groups, based primarily on the receptor to which they bind, and the [...]
Biosynthesis of Threonine and Methionine
Threonine is an alcohol-containing amino acid that can not be produced by metabolism and must be taken in the diet. This amino acid plays an important role along with Glycine and Serine in Porphyrin metabolism. Threonine is incorporated into proteins and enzymes at a molar rate of 6 percent compared [...]
Biosynthesis of Tryptophan in Bacteria and Plants
Tryptophan is an amino acid essential to survival. Amino acids serve as building blocks for proteins, as well as serving as starting points for the synthesis of vitamins and many other crucial cellular molecules. While most plants and microorganisms can produce all the amino acids they need, tryptophan is one [...]
Biosynthesis of Valine
Valine is an aliphatic amino acid that is closely related to Leucine and Isoleucine both in structure and function. These amino acids are extremely hydrophobic and are almost always found in the interior of proteins. They are also seldom useful in routine biochemical reactions, but are relegated to the duty [...]
Biotin Biosynthesis in B. sphaericus
Biotin (Vitamin-H) is essential for all living organisms and acts as a cofactor for a few essential enzymes of the Carboxylase family. Higher plants, most fungi and bacteria, are prototrophic for Biotin. Others, including most vertebrates and some bacteria, rely on exogenous sources. In mammals, Biotin is supplied by intestinal [...]
Biotin Metabolism
Biotin is a water-soluble Vitamin required by all organisms by virtue of its essential role in carboxylation reactions. Whereas animals lack the ability to synthesize Biotin, it is synthesized by microorganisms and plants and therefore is widespread in the food supply at low concentrations relative to most water-soluble Vitamins (Ref.1). [...]
Biotin Metabolism in B. subtilis
The colorless and orthorhombic Vitamin, Biotin or Vitamin-H, is essential for all living organisms and acts as a cofactor for a few essential enzymes of the Carboxylase family. Bacteria, most fungi and higher plants, are prototrophic for Biotin. Most vertebrates and even some bacteria, rely on exogenous sources. In mammals, [...]
Biotin Metabolism in E. coli K-12
One of the most fascinating cofactors involved in central pathways of pro- and eukaryotic cell metabolism belongs to the B-Complex group of Vitamins known as Biotin or Vitamin-H. Biotin is a colorless and orthorhombic, consisting of two fused rings: an Imidazol (Ureido) and a Sulfur-containing (Tetrahydrothiophene) ring; and the latter is [...]
Biotin Metabolism in H. sapiens
Biotin or Vitamin-H, an essential micronutrient for all mammals belongs to the B-Complex group of Vitamins. It is a water-soluble Vitamin used as co-factor of Biotin-dependent Carboxylases. The role of Biotin in Carboxylases is to act as vector for carboxyl-group transfer between donor and acceptor molecules during Carboxylation reaction (Ref.1). [...]
Biotin Metabolism in M. loti
Symbiotic bacteria, together with Phytopathogenic microbes, are plant-interacting microorganisms of major agronomic importance. Among these, Rhizobia are root-nodule-forming Nitrogen-Fixing Legume Symbionts. These microorganisms, in addition to providing an ideal model for studying plant-microbe interactions, play an important role in global nutrient cycling. In Rhizobium sp. also known as Mesorhizobium sp., [...]
Biotin Metabolism in M. musculus
Biotin is a water-soluble vitamin found in all organisms that functions as a cofactor of Biotin-dependent carboxylases. It belongs to the B-Complex group of Vitamins and is an essential micronutrient for all mammals. The role of Biotin (or Vitamin-H) in Carboxylases is to act as vector for carboxyl-group transfer between [...]
Biotin Metabolism in S. cerevisiae
In unicellular eukaryotes like S. cerevisiae (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), Biotin or Vitamin-H, a member of B-Complex group of Vitamins acts as a cofactor for a few essential enzymes of the Carboxylase family. It is also required for the biosynthesis of fatty acids and the metabolism of amino acids and carbohydrates. Some [...]
Brassinolide Biosynthesis in A. thaliana
BRs (Brassinosteroids) are Plant Steroid Hormones that influence a wide range of important Developmental and Physiological processes, including Regulation of Gene Expression, Cell Division and Expansion, Differentiation, Programmed Cell Death, and Homeostasis. The regulation of these processes by BRs, acting together with other plant hormones, leads to the promotion of [...]
Cardiolipin Synthesis in S. cerevisiae
CL (Cardiolipin/Diphosphatidylglycerol) is a unique Phospholipid carrying four acyl groups and two negative charges. Chemically it is known as 1,3-bis (1',2'-diacyl-3'-phosphoryl-sn-glycerol)-sn-glycerol). CL is ubiquitous in eukaryotes and is required for activity of several mitochondrial enzymes and protein import. After the conversion of PA (Phosphatidate/Phosphatidic Acid) plus CTP (Cytidine Triphosphate) to [...]
Catabolic Pathway for Arginine, Histidine, Glutamate, Glutamine and Proline
Glutamine and Glutamate with Proline, Histidine, Arginine and Ornithine, comprise 25% of the dietary amino acid intake and constitute the "Glutamate family" of amino acids, which are disposed of through conversion to Glutamate. The carbon skeletons of these five amino acids enter the tricarboxylic acid cycle via Alpha-Ketoglutarate. The catabolism [...]
Catabolic Pathway for Asparagine and Aspartate
Catabolism of Asn (Asparagine) and Asp (Aspartate or L-Aspartate or Aspartic Acid) occurs through a direct pathway consisting of amino acids with four carbon atoms, where these two molecules are catabolized into OAA (Oxaloacetate). Asn is one of the 20 most common natural amino acids on earth. It is the [...]
Catabolic Pathways for Alanine, Glycine, Serine, Cysteine, Tryptophan and Threonine
Five amino acids, Alanine, Cysteine, Glycine, Serine and Threonine are broken down to yield Pyruvate. Tryptophan is included in this group since one of its breakdown products is Alanine, which is transaminated to Pyruvate. Alanine is important in intertissue nitrogen transport as part of the Glucose-Alanine cycle. Alanine's catabolic pathway [...]
Catabolic Pathways for Methionine, Isoleucine, Threonine and Valine
The carbon skeletons of Methionine, Isoleucine, Threonine and Valine are degraded by pathways that yield Succinyl-CoA (Succinyl-Coenzyme A), an intermediate of the Citric Acid Cycle. Methionine donates its Methyl group to one of several possible acceptors through S-adenosylmethionine and three of its four remaining carbon atoms are converted to the [...]
Cyanoamino Acid Metabolism
Cyanide is an important industrial chemical produced on a grand scale each year. Under physiological conditions at pH 7, Cyanide is mostly present as HCN (Hydrogen Cyanide). HCN, being volatile and less dense than air, can rapidly diffuse into the environment. Although extremely toxic to mammalian life, Cyanide is a [...]
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