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Signaling Pathways      Metabolic Pathways     All Pathways
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D-Alanine Metabolism in B. suis
Bacteria of the genus Brucella are Gram-negative facultative intracellular pathogens of various wild and domestic mammals and are able to cause brucellosis, a severe zoonotic infection affecting ruminants, pigs, dogs, rodents, and cetacean. Traditionally, three major species are distinguished by their predilections for certain animal hosts: Brucella abortus for cattle, [...]
 
D-Alanine Metabolism in B. thuringiensis
Bacilli are rod-shaped, Gram-positive, sporulating, aerobes or facultative anaerobes. Most bacilli are saprophytes. Due to the metabolic diversity in the genus Bacillus, Bacilli are able to colonize a variety of habitats ranging from soil to insects, to humans (Ref.1 & 2). B. thuringiensis (commonly known as 'Bt') is an insecticidal [...]
 
D-Alanine Metabolism in C. acetobutylicum
The Clostridia are a diverse group of Gram-positive, rod-shaped anaerobes that include several toxin-producing pathogens (notably Clostridium difficile, Clostridium botulinum, Clostridium tetani, Clostridium acetobutylicum and Clostridium perfringens) and a large number of terrestrial species that produce acetone, butanol, ethanol, isopropanol, and organic acids through fermentation of a variety of carbon [...]
 
D-Alanine Metabolism in C. crescentus
Caulobacter crescentus is a Gram-negative non-pathogenic bacterium that grows in dilute aquatic environments. It is a member of the Alpha-subdivision of Proteobacteria. C. crescentus invariably differentiates and divides asymmetrically at each cell cycle. C. crescentus is a simple and highly manipulable single-celled model system to study cellular differentiation, asymmetric division, [...]
 
D-Alanine Metabolism in E. carotovora
Erwinia carotovora is a member of the “soft-rot” group of Erwinias and is capable of causing tissue maceration and disease among a broad host range of plants, especially potato tubers held in storage. D-Alanine is a necessary precursor in the biosynthesis of peptidoglycan layer in Erwinia carotovora. The naturally occurring [...]
 
D-Alanine Metabolism in E. faecalis
Enterococci are Gram-positive, facultative anaerobic and lactic acid producing bacteria. Most strains are nonhemolytic. Enterococcus faecalis (also known as Streptococcus faecalis), the second most frequent enterococcal species, is a saprophytic commensal that inhabits the oral cavity and gastrointestinal flora of humans and animals, although it can behave as an opportunistic [...]
 
D-Alanine Metabolism in G. kaustophilus
Geobacillus kaustophilus HTA426, which was isolated from the deep-sea sediment of the Mariana Trench, is a thermophilic Bacillus-related species whose upper temperature limit for growth is 74 degrees Celsius (optimally 60 degrees Celsius). It is known that there are at least 12 other thermophilic Geobacillus species, which have been reclassified [...]
 
D-Alanine Metabolism in L. innocua
The bacterial genus Listeria is currently taxonomically subdivided into six species: L. monocytogenes, L. seeligeri, L. ivanovii, L. innocua, L. grayi, and L. welshimeri. Two of the species are pathogenic, causing the disease listeriosis. L. innocua is widespread in the environment and in food. The only phenotypic characteristic that classically [...]
 
D-Alanine Metabolism in L. monocytogenes F2365
Listeria monocytogenes is a Gram-positive bacterium widely spread in nature and responsible for sporadic severe infections in humans and other animal species. This pathogen is a facultative intracellular microorganism capable of invading and surviving in most host cells, including epithelial cells and macrophages (Ref.1). L. monocytogenes strain F2365 (Serotype 4b) [...]
 
D-Alanine Metabolism in L. monocytogenes EGD-e
Listeria monocytogenes is a Gram-positive facultative intracellular bacterial pathogen that elicits a strong cellular immune response following infection and therefore has potential use as a vaccine vector. However, while infections by L. monocytogenes are fairly rare and can readily be controlled by a number of antibiotics, the organism can nevertheless [...]
 
D-Alanine Metabolism in L. plantarum
Lactobacillus plantarum is a member of the facultative heterofermentative group of Gram-positive Lactobacilli that are frequently isolated from plant material and various fermented foods. Lactobacilli produce lactic acid and are used for many different things, including yogurt production and the maintenance of healthy intestinal microflora. Lactobacilli are commonly associated with [...]
 
D-Alanine Metabolism in L. johnsonii
Lactic acid bacteria play important roles in food conservation because of their fermentative ability and contribute to the equilibrium of the gastrointestinal tract microbiota. Lactobacillus johnsonii is commonly found in the gastrointestinal tract and adhere to intestinal cells. Such interactions of bacteria with the gastrointestinal tract contribute to its protection [...]
 
D-Alanine Metabolism in L. lactis
Lactic acid bacteria are a heterogeneous group of microorganisms that convert carbohydrates into lactic acid. They comprise both pathogens (such as Streptococcus pneumoniae or Streptococcus pyogenes) and useful bacteria (such as Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactococcus lactis, which were used for millennia in milk fermentation). In nature, L. lactis occupies a [...]
 
D-Alanine Metabolism in L. pneumophila Lens
Legionella pneumophila is the causative agent of Legionnaires' disease, which replicates as an intracellular parasite of amoebae and persists in the environment as a free-living microbe (Ref.1 & 2). D-Alanine is a necessary precursor in the biosynthesis of cell wall in this bacterium. The naturally occurring L-Alanine isomer is racemized [...]
 
D-Alanine Metabolism in M. capsulatus
Methanotrophs are a unique group of Gram-negative bacteria that grow aerobically on methane and utilize methane as the sole source of carbon and energy. Methanotrophs such as Methylococcus capsulatus are responsible for the oxidation of biologically generated methane, and they are therefore of great environmental importance in reducing the amount [...]
 
D-Alanine Metabolism in M. loti
Rhizobium, Bradyrhizobium, Mesorhizobium, Sinorhizobium and Azorhizobium-known as Rhizobia-are Gram-negative, nitrogen-fixing bacteria of agronomic importance because they perform nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with leguminous plants. Nodule formation and the subsequent nitrogen-fixation result from a series of interactions controlled by the exchange of molecular signals between symbiotic bacteria and host plants followed by expression [...]
 
D-Alanine Metabolism in N. europaea
Nitrosomonas europaea is a Gram-negative obligate chemolithoautotroph, which derives all its energy and reductant for growth from the aerobic oxidation of ammonia to nitrite. The bacterium participates in the biogeochemical Nitrogen cycle in the process of nitrification (Ref.1). A key step in peptidoglycan layer assembly and deposition in the cell [...]
 
D-Alanine Metabolism in O. iheyensis
Oceanobacillus iheyensis is an alkaliphilic and extremely halotolerant Bacillus-related species isolated from deep-sea sediment. It is also known as 'small ocean bacillus pertaining to the Iheya Ridge' from where it was isolated. O. iheyensis grows at depths of up to 3,000 m. The bacteria thrive under high hydrostatic pressure and [...]
 
D-Alanine Metabolism in P. luminescens
Photorhabdus sp. are facultatively anaerobic gram negative rods, nonsporulating and chemoorganotrophic heterotrophs with respiratory and fermentative metabolisms. They are included in the family of Enterobacteriaceae belonging to Group-5 and Sub-group1. Almost all species of Photorhabdus are entomopathogenic. The bacterium Photorhabdus luminescens is pathogenic to a wide range of insects (Ref.1). [...]
 
D-Alanine Metabolism in R. solanacearum GMI1000
Ralstonia solanacearum (previously named Pseudomonas solanacearum) is a devastating, soil-borne plant pathogen and the causal agent of bacterial wilt, one of the most important bacterial diseases worldwide. Hundreds of different plant species, including many important agricultural crops such as potato, tomato, banana, pepper, and even trees such as eucalyptus are [...]
 
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