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D-Alanine Metabolism in S. pyogenes SF370
The Group-A Streptococcus (Streptococcus pyogenes) remains an important human pathogen, associated with a range of superficial skin and throat infections as well as a variety of more serious invasive infections and autoimmune sequelae such as acute rheumatic fever and post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis (Ref.1). S. pyogenes strains are grouped into two classes [...]
 
D-Alanine Metabolism in S. thermophilum
Symbiobacterium thermophilum is a symbiotic Gram-negative and tryptophanase-positive thermophile. It is an uncultivable bacterium isolated from compost that depends on microbial commensalism. It does not grow by itself under standard culture conditions; however, when cocultured with Bacillus sp., it propagates. S.thermophilum proliferates under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions (Ref.1, 2 [...]
 
D-Alanine Metabolism in S. thermophilus CNRZ1066
Streptococcus thermophilus is one of the most economically important lactic acid bacteria used in the manufacture of yogurt and cheeses. This bacterium belongs to the group of GRAS (Generally Recognized As Safe) bacteria which is an exception in the Streptococcus genus. S. thermophilus is used, along with Lactobacillus sp., as [...]
 
D-Alanine Metabolism in S. thermophilus LMG18311
Streptococcus thermophilus is one of the most economically important lactic acid bacteria used in the manufacture of yogurt and cheeses. This bacterium belongs to the group of GRAS (Generally Recognized as Safe) bacteria which is an exception in the Streptococcus genus. S. thermophilus is used, along with Lactobacillus sp., as [...]
 
Ethylene Biosynthesis in A. thaliana
Ethylene (C2H4) is a Plant hormone involved in a large number of developmental processes including Ripening of Fruit, Abscission, Senescence and Responses to Wounding. Ethylene Biosynthesis is best understood among the plant hormone pathways (Ref.1). In higher plants, Ethylene is produced from L-Methionine. Carbons C3 and C4 of Methionine is [...]
 
Feeder Pathways for Glycolysis
Many carbohydrates besides Glucose (or D-Glucose) meet their catabolic fate in Glycolysis, after being transformed into one of the Glycolytic intermediates. The most significant are the storage polysaccharides Glycogen and Starch; the disaccharides Maltose, Lactose, Trehalose and Sucrose; and the monosaccharides Fructose (or D-Fructose), Mannose (or D-Mannose) and Galactose (or [...]
 
Gibberellin Synthesis in Arabidopsis
GAs (Gibberellic Acids or Gibberellins) form a large family of diterpenoid compounds, some of which are bioactive growth regulators, which control diverse developmental processes such as seed germination, stem elongation, leaf expansion, trichome development, and flower and fruit development. Gibberellins are classified on the basis of structure as well as [...]
 
Glutathione Metabolism
Glutathione is a sulfhydryl (-SH) antioxidant, antitoxin, and enzyme cofactor. It is ubiquitous in animals, plants, and microorganisms, and being water soluble is found mainly in the cell cytosol and other aqueous phases of the living system. It is composed of Glutamate, Cysteine and Glycine that has numerous important functions [...]
 
Glutathione Metabolism in A. gossypii
Glutathione is a sulfhydryl (-SH) antioxidant, antitoxin, and enzyme cofactor. It is ubiquitous in animals, plants, and microorganisms, and being water soluble is found mainly in the cell cytosol and other aqueous phases of the living system. It cannot enter most cells directly and therefore must be made available inside [...]
 
Glutathione Metabolism in A. thaliana
Glutathione is a sulfhydryl (-SH) antioxidant, antitoxin, and enzyme cofactor. It is ubiquitous in animals, plants, and microorganisms, and being water soluble is found mainly in the cell cytosol and other aqueous phases of the living system. Glutathione is a tripeptide composed of Glutamate, Cysteine and Glycine that has numerous [...]
 
Glutathione Metabolism in A. tumefaciens C58 Cereon
Agrobacterium tumefaciens C58 Cereon is a Gram-negative, non-sporing, motile, rod-shaped bacterium. It is a plant pathogen capable of transferring a defined segment of DNA to a host plant replacing the transferred tumor-inducing genes with exogenous DNA generating a gall tumor. A. tumefaciens strain C58 has an unusual structure consisting of [...]
 
Glutathione Metabolism in A. tumefaciens C58 UWash-Dupont
Agrobacterium tumefaciens C58 (UWash/Dupont) is a Gram-negative, non-sporing, motile, rod-shaped bacterium. It is a plant pathogen capable of transferring a defined segment of DNA to a host plant replacing the transferred tumor-inducing genes with exogenous DNA generating a gall tumor. A. tumefaciens strain C58 has an unusual structure consisting of [...]
 
Glutathione Metabolism in Acinetobacter sp. ADP1
Gram-negative bacteria of the genus Acinetobacter are classified in the gamma subdivision of the Gram-negative proteobacteria and more precisely on the Moraxellaceae branch. Isolates of Acinetobacter are characterized as strictly aerobic non-motile heterotrophic mesophiles, capable of utilising a great variety of substrates as carbon sources, from alkanes to organic acids, [...]
 
Glutathione Metabolism in Azoarcus sp. EbN1
Azoarcus sp. is associated with microbial degradation of aromatic and other refractory compounds, including hydrocarbons in anoxic waters and soils. Strain EbN1 is an aromatic-degrading bacteria found in freshwater and soil habitats. A unique property of strain EbN1 is its capacity to degrade toluene and ethylbenzene via two different, strictly [...]
 
Glutathione Metabolism in B. bacteriovorus
Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus is a tiny and highly motile Delta-Proteobacterium that preys on other Gram-negative bacteria. B. bacteriovorus attaches itself to the cell wall of its prey and invades the cell where it goes through a full-life cycle. After it reproduces, the offspring burst out of the cell. Despite its small [...]
 
Glutathione Metabolism in B. bronchiseptica
Bordetella bronchiseptica, Bordetella pertussis and Bordetella parapertussis and are closely related Gram-negative Beta-proteobacteria that colonize the respiratory tracts of mammals. B. bronchiseptica causes chronic respiratory infections in a wide range of animals. B. bronchiseptica is encountered as a commensal or colonizer of the respiratory tract of humans and rarely in [...]
 
Glutathione Metabolism in B. henselae
Bartonella henselae is a fastidious, Gram-negative bacterial pathogen of cats and humans. Bartonella sp. are transmitted by insect vectors, using mammalian reservoirs, infecting similar cell types (Endothelial cells and Erythrocytes) and causing vasculoproliferative changes in immunocompromised hosts. B. henselae causes CSD (Cat Scratch Disease). Most people with CSD have been [...]
 
Glutathione Metabolism in B. japonicum
Rhizobium, Bradyrhizobium, Mesorhizobium, Sinorhizobium and Azorhizobium-known as Rhizobia-are Gram-negative, nitrogen-fixing bacteria of agronomic importance because they perform nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with leguminous plants. They are responsible for the world’s largest portion of fixed atmospheric nitrogen. Bradyrhizobium japonicum has been used since 1957 in molecular genetics, physiology, and ecology due to its [...]
 
Glutathione Metabolism in B. mallei
Burkholderia mallei are gram negative bacteria and are evolved as obligate parasite of horses, mules, and donkeys with no other known natural reservoir. B.mallei is regarded as a potential biological weapon because it is highly infectious as an aerosol and results in a disease that is painful, incapacitating, difficult to [...]
 
Glutathione Metabolism in B. melitensis
Brucella is a Gram-negative aerobic pathogen that is distringuished from most other pathogens because it does not have "obvious virulence factors" like capsules, fimbriae, flagella, exotoxins, exproteases, or other exoenzymes, cytolysins, resistance forms, antigenic variation, plamids, or lysogenic phages (Ref.1). Brucella sp. causes a "zoonotic disease endemic in many areas [...]
 
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