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Signaling Pathways      Metabolic Pathways     All Pathways
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Filamentous Differentiation of S. cerevisiae
Unicellular S. cerevisiae (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) undergoes developmental switches between two differentiation states in response to environmental cues. Under stress conditions, diploid S. cerevisiae cells switch from the yeast form (growth as single oval cells) to the filamentous or pseudohyphae form (growth as elongated cell chains that retain physical attachment between [...]
Flagellar Assembly of E. coli
E. coli (Escherichia coli) is one of the main species of bacteria that live in the lower intestines of warm-blooded animals, including birds and mammals. They are necessary for the proper digestion of food and are a part of the intestinal flora. Its presence in groundwater is a common indicator [...]
Flagellar Locomotion in E. coli
In an ever-changing environment, it is essential that organisms are able to sense these changes and to respond appropriately. Possible responses include alterations in gene expression and/or active movement towards or away from an environment. Most sensory pathways in eukaryotic organisms rely on serine, threonine or tyrosine protein kinases, whereas [...]
FLT3 Signaling
FLT3 (Fms-like Tyrosine Kinase-3), also known as FLK2 (Fetal Liver Kinase-2) and STK1 (human Stem Cell Kinase-1) was originally isolated as a hematopoietic progenitor cell-specific kinase, and belongs to the Class-III RTK (Receptor Tyrosine Kinase) family to which c-Fms, c-Kit, and the PDGFR (Platelet Derived Growth Factor Receptor) also belong [...]
fMLP Pathway
Neutrophils play an important role in the host defense by invading microbial pathogens. Upon infection neutrophils become activated through interaction with chemo attractants and cytokines. These ligands bind to a variety of cell surface receptors, including heterotrimeric GPCR (G-Protein Coupled Receptors) for fMLP (N-formyl-Met-Leu-Phe) and PAF (Platelet Activating Factor), and [...]
Frizzled-PCP Pathway in D. melanogaster
In multicellular organisms, epithelia form highly organized structures. Epithelial apical-basolateral polarity enables the tissues to perform functions such as vectorial transport of fluid or secretion of specialized components to either their apical or basal side. However, the function of some tissues requires an additional axis of polarity within an epithelium, [...]
G-AlphaI Signaling
The heterotrimeric G-Proteins (Guanine nucleotide-binding Proteins) are signal transducers that communicate signals from many hormones, neurotransmitters, chemokines, and autocrine and paracrine factors. The extracellular signals are received by members of a large superfamily of receptors with seven membrane-spanning regions, known as GPCR (G-Protein Coupled Receptor), that activate the G-proteins, which [...]
G-AlphaQ Signaling
GPCR (G-Protein-Coupled Receptors) constitute a large and diverse family of proteins whose primary function is to transduce extracellular stimuli into intracellular signals. They are among the largest and most diverse protein families in mammalian genomes. Also termed Serpentine receptors, GPCRs are polytopic membrane proteins that share a common structure with [...]
G-AlphaS Signaling
G-proteins are heterotrimers, consisting of Alpha, Beta and Gamma subunits, and are involved in signaling to distinct effectors. Heterotrimeric G-proteins convey extracellular signals that activate 7-transmembrane-spanning GPCRs (G-Protein-Coupled Receptors) to the inside of cells, communicating this information to effector proteins and thus initiating changes in cell behaviour. GPCRs constitute a [...]
G-Beta Gamma Signaling
G-proteins (Guanine Nucleotide-Binding Proteins) are heterotrimeric proteins that mediate signal transduction between many membrane-bound receptors and intracellular effectors. Traditionally, activation of heterotrimeric G-proteins is accomplished exclusively by the action of GPCRs (G-Protein Coupled Receptors), Seven transmembrane-spanning proteins that typically reside in the Plasma membrane. G-proteins consist of Alpha, Beta and [...]
G-Protein Signaling through Tubby
The Tubby protein is the founding member of a multigene protein family that plays an important role in maintenance and function of neuronal cells during development and post-differentiation. Currently, four Tubby gene family members (TUB, TULP1, TULP2 and TULP3) have been identified, which are conserved among different species of mammals [...]
G1-S Phase Transition
Cell cycle arrest in response to DNA damage is an important mechanism for maintaining genomic integrity. This cell cycle arrest provides time for DNA repair to prevent replication or segregation of damaged DNA. Induction of growth arrest by DNA damage occurs mainly through the activation of checkpoint pathways that delay [...]
G12-G13 in Cellular Signaling
The G12 subfamily of heterotrimeric G proteins, comprised of the Alpha-subunits G-Alpha12 and G-Alpha13, has been implicated as a signaling component in cellular processes ranging from cytoskeletal changes to cell growth and oncogenesis. Activated G-Alpha12 and G-Alpha13 have a molecular weight of 43,000 kDa and they show more than 66% [...]
G2-M Phase Transition
The cellular responses to DNA damage induced by ionizing radiation include activation of cell cycle checkpoints that delay progression of cells through the cell cycle. Ionizing radiation-induced checkpoints are active at the transition from the G1-phase to the S-phase, in the S-phase, and at the transition from the G2-phase to [...]
GADD45 Pathway
Genotoxic stress is an important and ubiquitous type of stress that cells are inevitably exposed to over the life span of an organism. Many potentially damaging agents both from the environment and from endogenous processes involving activated oxygen species and other reactive agents can damage the DNA in cells.
GDNF-Family Ligands and Receptor Interactions
Neurotrophic factors are a broad set of peptide growth factors that tightly regulate many critical aspects of the ontogeny of neurons, such as the number of neurons in a given population, neurite branching and synaptogenesis, adult synaptic plasticity and maturation of electrophysiological properties. Neurotrophic factors include Neurotrophins, Neurokines and GDNF (Glial-cell-line-derived Neurotrophic [...]
Germ Cell-Sertoli Cell Junction Dynamics
Sertoli-Germ (Spermatid)-cell interactions affect spermatogenesis at the molecular, cellular and biochemical levels. Germ cell movement within the epithelium is vital because germ cells, if induced to release into the tubule lumen prematurely, will be unable to fertilize the ovum. On the other hand, if germ cells are forced to remain [...]
GHRH Signaling
GHRH (Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone) is a hypothalamic hormone that is essential for normal expansion of the somatotrope lineage during pituitary development. GHRH is produced by GHRH cells in the hypothalamus and reaches the adenohypophysis via the portal system. It stimulates the release of GH (Growth Hormone)/Somatotropin from the adenohypophysis. GH [...]
Gibberellin Signaling in Barley Aleurone Grain
GAs (Gibberellins) are members of a large family of Diterpenoid compounds, which are essential for a number of processes, including Gene Expression in Cereal Aleurones, Seed Germination, Elongation, Growth, and Flowering. During the last four decades, Barley Aleurone has been a valuable system for studying GA regulation of gene expression. [...]
GITR Pathway
GITR (Glucocorticoid-Induced TNFR Family-Related) also termed AITR (Activation-Inducible TNFR Family Receptor) is a member of the TNFRSF18 (TNF Receptor Superfamily 18). It is a 228-amino acids type I transmembrane protein that is suggested to be a close relative of 4-1BB and CD27. Inducible during T-Cell activation, the molecule has a [...]
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