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Signaling Pathways      Metabolic Pathways     All Pathways
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Glioma Invasiveness
Gliomas are the most common intracranial malignant tumors in humans, and high-grade Gliomas in particular pose a unique challenge due to their propensity for proliferation and tissue invasion (Ref.1). The invasion of neoplastic cells into healthy brain tissue is a pathologic hallmark of Gliomas and contributes to the failure of [...]
 
Glucocorticoid Receptor Signaling
Our bones get more brittle with increasing age, and to add insult to injury, the most effective therapy for another problem that is associated with getting older, rheumatoid arthritis, often adds to the problem by causing bone resorption. The Glucocorticoid steroids, are the best available anti-inflammatories, and are used widely in the [...]
 
GnRH Signaling
Normal mammalian sexual maturation and reproductive functions require the integration and precise coordination of hormones at the hypothalamic, pituitary, and gonadal levels. The hypothalamic GnRH (Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone), also called LHRH (Luteinizing Hormone Releasing Hormone), is a key regulator in this system (the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis), that plays a decisive role [...]
 
GPCR Pathway
GPCRs (Guanine Nucleotide Binding–Protein Coupled Receptors) comprise large and diverse gene families in fungi, plants, and the animal kingdom. Also termed serpentine receptors, GPCRs are polytopic membrane proteins that share a common structure with seven transmembrane segments, but sequence similarity is minimal among the most distant GPCRs. Their principal function [...]
 
Granulocyte Adhesion and Diapedesis
The migration of leukocytes or WBCs (White Blood Cells) from the vascular system to sites of pathogenic exposure is a key event in the process of inflammation. The inflammatory reaction enables the organism to defend itself against infectious microbes. The entry of leukocytes into sites of injury or infection requires [...]
 
Granzyme Pathway Recently Updated
Lymphocytes play a pivotal role in regulating immune responses. A key function of CL (Cytotoxic Lymphocytes) is to detect and eliminate potentially harmful cells by inducing them to undergo apoptosis. The induction of cell death by CTLs (Cytotoxic T-Lymphocytes) or NK (Natural Killer) cells is one of the main ways [...]
 
Granzyme-A Pathway Recently Updated
CTLs (Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes) and NK (Natural Killer) cells are the key immune effectors that eradicate infected cells or tumors. To destroy these targets, CTLs and NK cells mostly use the granule exocytosis pathway, which releases perforin and Granzymes from cytolytic granules into the immunological synapse formed with the target. [...]
 
Granzyme-B Pathway Recently Updated
CTLs (Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes) and NK (Natural Killer) cells are the key immune effectors that eradicate infected cells or tumors. To destroy these targets, CTLs and NK cells mostly use the granule exocytosis pathway, which releases perforin and Granzymes from cytolytic granules into the immunological synapse formed with the target. [...]
 
Growth Hormone Signaling
Most aging individuals die from atherosclerosis, cancer, or dementia; but in the oldest old, loss of muscle strength resulting in frailty is the limiting factor for an individual's chances of living an independent life until death. Three hormonal systems show decreasing circulating hormone concentrations during normal aging: (i) estrogen (in [...]
 
GSK3 Signaling Recently Updated
GSK3 (Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3) is a ubiquitously expressed, highly conserved serine/threonine protein kinase found in all eukaryotes. Identified originally as a regulator of glycogen metabolism, GSK3 acts as a downstream regulatory switch for numerous signaling pathways, including cellular responses to WNT, Growth Factors, Insulin, RTK (Receptor Tyrosine Kinases), Hedgehog pathways, [...]
 
Guidance Cues and Growth Cone Motility
As an axon grows, the growth cone at its advancing edge encounters specific ‘choice points’ at which guidance cues steer specific axons towards their appropriate destinations. Such cues may attract a subset of axons towards a given domain, repel axons from inappropriate target regions or simply provide a permissive substrate [...]
 
H. pylori Activated Signaling
Helicobacter pylori is a gram negative bacterium that causes chronic inflammation in essentially all hosts, a process that increases the risk of developing peptic ulceration, distal gastric adenocarcinoma, and gastric mucosal lymphoproliferative disease. This bacterium also is the most common cause of ulcers worldwide. H. pylori infection is most likely [...]
 
Hair Growth Cycle
The hair follicle is a three-dimensional tube, composed mainly of epithelial cells that protrude down through the epidermis and dermis of the skin, enveloping at its base the mesenchyme-derived dermal papilla. These hair follicle acts as a sensory organ and immunologic sentinel for the skin. Hairs detect mechanical stimuli above [...]
 
HBV Replication Cycle
HBV (Hepatitis-B Virus) belongs to a family of closely related DNA viruses called the Hepadnaviruses. Included in this family are the WHV (Woodchuck Hepatitis Virus), the DHBV (Duck Hepatitis-B Virus) and several other avian and mammalian variants. Hepadnaviruses have a strong preference for infecting liver cells, but small amounts of [...]
 
HCV Life Cycle
Hepatitis-C Virus (HCV) belongs to the Flaviviridae family and is the leading cause of chronic liver disease globally. It is estimated to infect about 170 million people around the world (WHO, 1997). Chronic HCV infection frequently leads to liver fibrosis and cirrhosis, and is associated with the occurrence of hepatocellular [...]
 
Hedgehog Signaling in Drosophila
The Hh (Hedgehog) proteins are evolutionarily conserved signaling molecules that control the normal growth and patterning of diverse animals including Drosophila and humans. In flies, Hh is required for multiple developmental processes such as embryonic segment patterning, eye and appendage development. A single Drosophila Hedgehog gene has three mammalian counterparts: SHh (Sonic Hedgehog), IHh (Indian Hedgehog), and DHh (Desert Hedgehog). The Hh proteins are extracellular
 
Hedgehog Signaling in Mammals
Controlled cell proliferation is a predominant theme in normal embryonic and post-embryonic development, and, in many instances, cell-type specification and cell proliferation are intimately coupled. Several secreted intercellular signaling proteins that behave as morphogens during pattern formation are also implicated in the regulation of the cell cycle. Hedgehogs (Hhs) are [...]
 
Hematopoiesis from Multipotent Stem Cell
Hematopoiesis is the process that generates blood cells of all lineages (Ref.1). The process of generation of blood cells begins in the early embryo and continues throughout life (Ref.2). Every day, billions of new blood cells are produced in the body, each one derived from a HSC (Hematopoietic Stem Cell). [...]
 
Hematopoiesis from Pluripotent Stem Cell
Hematopoietic Stem Cells (HSCs) have the property of self-renewal and through cell division and differentiation, form populations of progenitor cells which are committed to the main marrow cell lines; Erythroid, Granulocytic and Monocytic, Megakaryocytic and Lymphocytic. The earlier progenitor cells are multipotent but, as division and differentiation proceed, later progenitors [...]
 
Hepatic ABC Transporters
ABC (ATP-binding cassette) transporters are a large superfamily of integral membrane proteins involved in the cellular export or import of a wide variety of different substances, including ions, lipids, cyclic nucleotides, peptides, and proteins. ABC transporters are systemically classified into eight subfamilies by sequence similarity, i.e., ABCA (ABC1), ABCB (MDR/TAP), [...]
 
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