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Signaling Pathways      Metabolic Pathways     All Pathways
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Hepatic ABC Transporters
ABC (ATP-binding cassette) transporters are a large superfamily of integral membrane proteins involved in the cellular export or import of a wide variety of different substances, including ions, lipids, cyclic nucleotides, peptides, and proteins. ABC transporters are systemically classified into eight subfamilies by sequence similarity, i.e., ABCA (ABC1), ABCB (MDR/TAP), [...]
HGF Pathway
HGF (Hepatocyte Growth Factor)/SF (Scatter Factor) is a mesenchymal- or stromal-derived multipotent heparan sulfate-binding and dermatan sulfate-binding pleiotropic polypeptide that mediates epithelial-mesenchymal interactions with mitogenic, motogenic and morphogenic activities towards many normal and neoplastic epithelial cells. Initially identified as a potent hepatotrophic factor responsible for vigorous regeneration of the liver, [...]
HIF1Alpha Pathway
The cellular response to O2 (oxygen) is a central process in animal cells and figures prominently in the pathophysiology of several diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, and stroke. This process is coordinated by the HIF (Hypoxia-Inducible Factor) and its regulator, the pVHL (Von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor protein). HIF1 is a [...]
High Osmolarity Pathway in Budding Yeast
The internal osmolarity of a growing yeast cell is maintained higher than the external osmolarity. The resulting osmotic gradient across the plasma membrane brings in water for cell expansion and creates turgor. Yeast cells are quite resistant to various types of stress including hypertonic stress. This adaptability can be traced [...]
HMGB1 Pathway
The ability of a cell to respond specifically to various external and internal signals plays an essential role in regulating gene expression, differentiation, and cell death. Most often, the cellular responses to various stimuli involve transduction of signals received by specific receptors to defined targets that elicit specific responses in [...]
HOP Signaling
Cardiac myocyte proliferation and their differentiation early in development are dependent on the coordinate expression and action of SRF (Serum Response Factor), GATA4 (GATA Binding Protein-4) and the homeodomain factor NKX2.5 (NK2 Transcription Factor Related Locus-5). All three of these factors are expressed in developing cardiomyocytes and induce expression of cardiac genes. HOP (Homeodomain-Only Protein) physically interacts with SRF and inhibits activation of SRF-dependent transcription by inhibiting
HSV1 Latent Infection
Herpesviridae is a large family of viruses including several members that are pathogenic to humans, causing a variety of disorders ranging from cold sores and chicken pox to less frequent conditions such as blindness and cancers. HSV1 (Herpes Simplex Virus Type-1), the prototypical member of this family, is a large [...]
HSV1 Replication Cycle
HSV1 (Herpes Simplex Virus Type-1) is a member of the Herpes group of viruses, the Herpesviridiae, which includes the important human pathogens HSV2, CMV (Cytomegalovirus), Varicella zoster Virus, EBV (Epstein-Barr Virus), HSV6 and 7, and Kaposi's associated Herpes virus, HHV8 (Human Herpesvirus-8). Of these, HSV1 has been the most extensively [...]
HTLV1 Replication Cycle
The retroviral life cycle begins in the nucleus of an infected cell. At this stage of the life cycle the retroviral genome is a DNA element integrated into and covalently attached to the DNA of the host cell. Deltaretroviruses are complex viruses characterized by “C”-Type morphology. The most famous examples [...]
Human Early Embryo Development
An Embryo is a multicellular diploid eukaryote in its earliest stage of development, from the time of first cell division until birth, hatching, or germination. In Humans, it is called an Embryo from the moment of Fertilization until the end of the 8th week of gestational age, whereafter it is [...]
Human Embryonic Stem Cell Pluripotency
ESCs (Embryonic Stem Cells) are Pluripotent cells capable of differentiating into any cell type of the body. Only three species of Mammals have yielded long-term cultures of self-renewing ESCs- Mice, Monkeys, and Humans. Human ESCs are derived from Blastocysts, multicellular structures originating from four cleavages of fertilized oocytes. Isolated from [...]
Huntingtin Comparative Pathway
Huntington disease is an Autosomally Dominant degenerative disorder resulting from expansion (>37 units) of a polyglutamine repeats in Huntingtin, a 350-kDa protein of unknown function. The polyglutamine repeat is localized in the N-terminal region of Huntingtin and is encoded by exon1 of the HD or Htt (Huntingtin) gene. Huntington disease [...]
Huntington’s Disease Pathway
Huntington's disease, also known as Huntington Chorea, is a dominantly inherited Neurodegenerative disorder featuring progressively worsening Chorea, Psychiatric disturbances and Cognitive Impairment due to neuronal cell loss in the Basal ganglia and the Cerebral cortex. It affects about one in 10,000 individuals and is transmitted in an Autosomal dominant fashion. [...]
ICos-ICosL Pathway in T-Helper Cell
During immune response, T-cells are optimally activated in secondary lymphoid tissues in order to properly migrate into areas of inflamed tissue. Upon antigen recognition via the TCR (T-Cell Receptor)/CD3 (CD3 Antigen) complex, a second co-stimulatory signal from APCs or Antigen-Presenting Cells is necessary for activation of naive T-cells.
IGF1R Signaling
Programmed cell death, a form of altruistic suicide is a genetically controlled means of cellular self-destruction that leads to dismantling and packaging of cell material for removal by phagocytosis. All cells possess the ability to undergo programmed cell death (otherwise known as apoptosis), and the process is essential for normal [...]
IL-1 Pathway
IL-1 (Interleukin-1) is a proinflammatory cytokine that stimulates a broad spectrum of immune and inflammatory responses. IL-1 is produced by activated macrophages, endothelia cells, B-Cells, and fibroblast cells. It induces inflammatory responses, edema, promotes the production of Prostaglandins, IL-2, and the growth of leukocytes (Ref.1). There are two forms of [...]
IL-10 Pathway
IL-10 (Interleukin-10) is a pleiotropic cytokine with important immunoregulatory functions whose actions influence activities of many of the cell-types in the immune system. It is a cytokine with potent anti-inflammatory properties, repressing the expression of inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-Alpha (Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha), IL-6 (Interleukin-6) and IL-1 (Interleukin-1) by activated [...]
IL-17 Signaling
Cytokines are key messenger molecules in cell-to-cell communication and are involved in various aspects of the immune system such as maintaining homeostasis and mediating and resolving pathologic conditions. IL-17 (Interleukin-17) family is a group of cytokines sharing homology in amino acid sequences with highly conserved cysteine residues critical to their 3-dimensional shape
IL-2 Gene Expression in Activated and Quiescent T-Cells
IL-2 (Interleukin-2) is a biological response modifier (cytokine), which stimulates the growth, proliferation and subsequent differentiation of disease-fighting blood cells, like T-Cells, B-Cells, NK (Natural Killer) cells, monocytes, macrophages, and oligodendrocytes. It is a powerful immunoregulatory lymphokine that was originally described as "T-Cell growth factor" and is secreted primarily by [...]
IL-2 Pathway
IL-2 (Interleukin-2) is a T-Cell-derived cytokine important in the regulation of growth and differentiation of T-Cells, B-Cells, natural killer cells, glioma cells, and cells of the monocyte lineage after specifically interacting with its receptors. Human IL-2 is a 133-amino acid polypeptide with a molecular mass of 15-18 kDa. IL-2 signaling is mediated by a [...]
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