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IL-2 Pathway Recently Updated
IL-2 (Interleukin-2) is a T-Cell-derived cytokine important in the regulation of growth and differentiation of T-Cells, B-Cells, natural killer cells, glioma cells, and cells of the monocyte lineage after specifically interacting with its receptors. Human IL-2 is a 133-amino acid polypeptide with a molecular mass of 15-18 kDa. IL-2 signaling is mediated by a [...]
IL-22 Pathway
IL-22/IL-TIF (Interleukin-22/IL-10-related T-Cell-derived Inducible Factor) is a novel cytokine belonging to the IL-10 family. IL-22 induces the production of acute-phase reactants in liver and pancreas, suggesting its involvement in the generation of inflammatory and allergic responses. Human IL-22 is a 179 aa polypeptide that contains a 33 aa ss and [...]
IL-3 Pathway Recently Updated
IL-3 (Interleukin-3) is a cytokine that regulates haemopoiesis, the formation of blood cells in the body. IL-3, also called multi-CSF (multi-lineage colony stimulating factor), is produced by T cells and mast cells, after activation with mitogens or antigens. The molecular weight of IL-3, a protein of 140 amino acids, ranges [...]
IL-4 Pathway Recently Updated
IL-4 (Interleukin-4) is a T-Cell derived multifunctional cytokine with a molecular weight of approximately 15 to 19 kD that plays a critical role in the regulation of immune responses. It plays an important role in modulating the balance of TH (T Helper) cell subsets, favouring expansion of the TH2 lineage [...]
IL-6 Pathway Recently Updated
IL-6 (Interleukin-6) is a cytokine that provokes a broad range of cellular and physiological responses, including the immune response, inflammation, hematopoiesis, and oncogenesis by regulating cell growth, gene activation, proliferation, survival, and differentiation. IL-6 signals through a receptor composed of two different subunits, an alpha subunit that produces ligand specificity [...]
IL-9 Pathway
IL-9 (Interleukin-9) is a TH2-type cytokine first described in the mouse as a potent T-Cell and mast cell growth factor. IL-9 has been reported to be a T-Cell derived cytokine with various effects on a variety of cell types associated with allergic inflammation. IL-9 has been shown to stimulate the [...]
ILK Signaling
The ECM (Extracellular Matrix) provides the structural framework for the formation of tissues and organs. The ECM binds to substrate adhesion molecules on the surface of cells and influences various intracellular signaling pathways that regulate survival, proliferation, polarity and differentiation. The important families of adhesion molecules that bind to the [...]
Influenza-A Virus Replication Cycle
Influenza, commonly called "the flu", is an infection of the respiratory tract caused by the Influenza virus. Compared with most other viral respiratory infections, such as the common cold, Influenza infection often causes a more severe illness. Typical Influenza illness includes fever and respiratory symptoms, such as cough, sore throat, [...]
Inhibition of Angiogenesis by TSP1
Cancer is a multistep process that includes deregulation of cell cycle, transformation, invasion of stroma, angiogenesis and metastasis. Angiogenesis is an essential component for tumor development regulated by both proangiogenic and antiangiogenic factors (Ref.1). It is a multi-step process that includes endothelial cell proliferation, migration, basement membrane degradation, and new [...]
Inhibition of Matrix Metalloproteinases
MPs (Metalloproteinases) play key roles in the responses of cells to their microenvironment. By effecting proteolytic degradation or activation of cell surface and ECM (Extracellular Matrix) proteins they can modulate both cell-cell and cell-ECM interactions, which influence cell differentiation, migration, proliferation and survival. Both secreted and membrane bound forms of [...]
Inhibition of Ribosome Biogenesis by p14(ARF)
CDKN2A (Cyclin Dependent Kinase Inhibitor-2A) belongs to the CDKN family which show specificity for G1 phase CDKs (Cyclin-Dependent Kinases) and such binding results in block exit from G1 into S phase. CDKN2A, CDK4, CcnD (Cyclin-D) and Rb (Retinoblastoma) are components of the same growth-regulatory pathway that functions to control progression through G1 [...]
Inhibition of Ribosome Biogenesis by p19(ARF)
CDKN2A (Cyclin Dependent Kinase Inhibitor-2A), which is also referred to as p16(INK4A) encodes ARFs (Alternative Reading Frames), or transcript variants. In mice the p16(INK4A) encodes a transcript variant known as p19(ARF), whereas in humans it encodes p14(ARF). The p19(ARF) acts a tumor suppressor but its action is distinct from the murine p16(INK4A). p19(ARF) acts on the p53 pathway by interacting with MDM2 (Mouse Double Minute-2), thereby blocking degradation of p53 and resulting in p53 stabilization
iNOS Signaling
Microorganisms have developed several mechanisms to survive in their hosts' environments. These include competition with their hosts for metal acquisition and resistance to host defenses such as NO (Nitric Oxide), a cytotoxic weapon generated by macrophages. In eukaryotic cells, NO is metabolically produced by NOS (NO Synthase) from L-Arginine, O2 [...]
Insulin Receptor Pathway
Insulin is the major hormone controlling critical energy functions such as glucose and lipid metabolism. Insulin elicits a diverse array of biological responses by binding to its specific receptor (Ref.1). The insulin receptor belongs to a subfamily of receptor tyrosine kinases that includes the IGF (Insulin-like Growth Factor) receptor and [...]
Integrin Pathway Recently Updated
Adhesive interactions between cells and ECM (Extracellular Matrix) proteins play a vital role in biological processes, including cell survival, growth, differentiation, migration, inflammatory responses, platelet aggregation, tissue repair and tumor invasion (Ref.4) and perturbing this coordination can lead to events such as malignant transformation. The major groups of proteins mediating [...]
Interferon Pathway
To thwart viral infection, our cells have developed a formidable and integrated defense network that comprise of innate and adaptive immune responses. In an attempt to prevent viral replication, viral dissemination or persistent viral infection of the cell, many of these protective measures actually involve the induction of programmed cell [...]
Internalin Pathway
An essential step in the life cycle of many important pathogenic bacteria is their ability to invade cells that are normally nonphagocytic. Gaining access to an intracellular niche provides bacteria with an environment permissive for growth, allows them to avoid host defense mechanisms, or permits them to gain access to [...]
Intracellular Calcium Signaling
Despite tremendous diversities in their expression, cellular activities in virtually all cell types are regulated by common intracellular signaling systems, and calcium is one important ubiquitous intracellular messenger, controlling a diverse range of cellular processes, such as gene transcription, muscle contraction and cell proliferation (Ref.1). In response to adequate stimuli, [...]
Intraepithelial Neoplasia of Pancreas
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is the most common pancreatic neoplasm and as its name suggests it arises from ductal epithelial cells of the pancreas. Other subtypes of pancreatic neoplasms include benign and malignant cystic lesions, mucin producing tumor, acinar cell carcinoma, adenosquamous carcinoma, lymphomas and sarcomas. Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma evolves from [...]
Intrinsic Prothrombin Activation Pathway
The process by which the body prevents blood loss is referred to as coagulation. Thrombin/TFIIa (Activated Factor-II) is a multifunctional serine proteinase, which serves as an essential component of the process of Blood Coagulation - the hemostatic process of greatest interest. When a blood vessel is injured, bleeding is stopped [...]
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