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Signaling Pathways      Metabolic Pathways     All Pathways
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IP3 Pathway
IP3 (Inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate), also known as a second messenger, is a molecule that functions to transfer a chemical signal received by the cell, such as from a hormone, neurotransmitters, growth factors and hypertrophic stimuli such as AngII (Angiotensin-II), Beta-adrenergic receptor agonists, and ET1 (Endothelin-1) to various signaling networks within the cell. IP3 [...]
 
ITK and TCR Signaling
Development of a proper immune system requires the selection of lymphocytes expressing a useful repertoire of antigen receptors that can respond to foreign or dangerous antigens but not to self. For T-Cells developing in the thymus, these selection processes include both positive and negative selection of immature CD4 and CD8 [...]
 
JAK-STAT Pathway
Signaling pathways mediating the transduction of information between cells are essential for development, cellular differentiation and homeostasis. Their dysregulation is also frequently associated with human malignancies. The JAK (Janus tyrosine Kinase)-STAT (Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription) pathway represents one such signaling cascade whose evolutionarily conserved roles include cell proliferation [...]
 
Jasmonate Signaling in Arabidopsis
JAs (Jasmonates) are Fatty Acid–derived Signaling molecules involved in the regulation of many Physiological and Developmental Processes in Plants, including Root Growth, Tuberization, Fruit Ripening, Senescence, Tendril Coiling, and Pollen Development. They are also important Regulators of Plant responses to Environmental Stress, such as Ozone Exposure, Wounding, Water Deficit, and [...]
 
JNK Pathway
MAPKs (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases) are Serine-threonine protein Kinases that are activated in response to a variety of extracellular stimuli and mediate signal transduction from the cell surface to the nucleus. MAPKs are expressed in multiple cell types including Cardiomyocytes, Vascular Endothelial cells, and Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells. Three major MAPKs [...]
 
LDL Oxidation in Atherogenesis
Atherosclerosis, a chronic inflammatory disease of the arterial wall, is the major cause of morbidity and mortality from CVD (Cardiovascular Disease) in much of the world’s population. The disease involves the formation of Plaques in arterial walls that narrow the arterial passage, restricting blood flow and increasing the risk of [...]
 
LDLR Biosynthesis and Transport
Cholesterol is an important component of cell membrane, and a precursor of Steroid hormones, vitamin D3, and Biliairy Acids. Cell Cholesterol homeostasis is under the control of endogenous Cholesterol synthesis, Cholesterol secretion, and of Lipoprotein Receptor activities that enrich the cell in Cholesterol. Lipoprotein Receptors play an important role in [...]
 
Lectin Induced Complement Pathway
Complement is a complex system containing more than 30 various glycoproteins present in serum in the form of components, factors, or other regulators and/or on the surface of different cells in the form of receptors. It is a highly sophisticated host defence system designed to destroy pathogens. Once the complement [...]
 
Life Cycle of Plasmodium falciparum
Malaria is the world's largest parasitic disease, killing more people than any other communicable disease except Tuberculosis. Malaria is a major public health problem in more than 100 countries, inhabited by a total of some 2.4 billion people, or close to half of the world's population. Each year, 300–500 million [...]
 
Lipid Antigen Presentation by CD1
The CD1 (Thymocyte Antigen CD1) antigen presentation system presents lipid and glycolipid antigens to effector T-Cells, which have diverse roles in Antimicrobial responses, Antitumor immunity and in regulating the balance between Tolerance and Autoimmunity. CD1, a conserved family of MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex)-like glycoproteins in mammals, specializes in capturing lipid [...]
 
LPS Stimulated MAPK Signaling
Endotoxin LPS (Lipopolysaccharide) is a component of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria that potently promotes the activation of macrophages and microglia cells, which are important sensors of infection by bacteria, fungi, and viruses, in both the periphery and the CNS (Central Nervous System). There are several known LBP (LPS-Binding [...]
 
LT-BetaR Pathway
Much of the efficiency of the immune system is attributed to the high degree of spatial and temporal organization in the secondary lymphoid organs. Signaling through the LT-BetaR (Lymphotoxin-Beta Receptor) pathway is a crucial element in the maintenance of this organised microenvironment (Ref.1). LT-BetaR, a member of the TNFR (Tumor [...]
 
Macrophage Differentiation and Growth Inhibition by METS
Cell differentiation begins only when the cell proliferation mechanism is seized, and the macrophage differentiation system is a good example, as the macrophages start to differentiate only when they stop proliferating. Molecular mechanisms which act coordinately in order to regulate cell proliferation and differentiation are vital in development. Induction of Ets [...]
 
MAPK Family Pathway
Protein kinases are ubiquitous enzymes that are able to modulate the activities of other proteins by adding phosphate groups to their tyrosine, serine, or threonine amino acids (phosphorylation). MAPKs (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases), which are activated by many different signals, belong to a large family of serine/threonine protein kinases that are [...]
 
MAPK Pathway in Caenorhabditis elegans
The MAPK (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase) pathways are highly conserved signaling cascades that convert extracellular signals into various outputs. Each pathway is composed of three classes of protein kinase: MAPK, MAPKK (MAPK Kinase) and MAPKKK (MAPK Kinase Kinase). MAPK is activated by phosphorylation of specific tyrosine and threonine residues by a [...]
 
MAPK Pathway in Drosophila melanogaster
MAPK (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase) signal transduction pathways are evolutionarily conserved in eukaryotic cells and transduce signals in response to a variety of extracellular stimuli. Each pathway is composed of three classes of protein kinase: MAPK, MAPKK (MAPK Kinase) and MAPKKK (MAPK Kinase Kinase). MAPK is activated by tyrosine and threonine [...]
 
MAPK Pathway in Fission Yeast
In both Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes, a major adaptive response to various Stress conditions is to change the repertoire of Gene expression. Prokaryotic cells commonly employ the two-component Signal Transduction Systems, where a “sensor” Histidine Kinase, often located in the Plasmamembrane, mediates environmental signals to a cytoplasmic “response regulator” that controls [...]
 
MAPK Pathways in Budding Yeast
MAPK (Mitogen-activated protein kinases) are serine-threonine protein kinases that are activated by diverse stimuli ranging from cytokines, growth factors, neurotransmitters, hormones, cellular stress, and cell adherence. MAPKs are expressed in all eukaryotic cells. The basic assembly of MAPK pathways is a three-component module conserved from yeast to humans. The MAPK [...]
 
MAPK Signaling Recently Updated
Intracellular signaling cascades are the main routes of communication between the Plasma membrane and regulatory targets in various intracellular compartments. Sequential activation of Kinases is a common mechanism of signal transduction in many cellular processes. During the past decade, several related intracellular signaling cascades have been elucidated, which are collectively [...]
 
Mating-Pheromone Response Pathway in Budding Yeast
The MAPK (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase) cascades play a pivotal role in many aspects of cellular functions, and are evolutionarily conserved from yeast to mammals. In Saccharomyces. cerevisiae, there are five MAP kinase signal transduction pathways that regulate mating, filamentous growth, high osmolarity response, maintenance of cellular integrity, and ascospore formation. [...]
 
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