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MDSC Induced Immune Suppression
MDSCs (Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells) are recently been recognized as critical mediators of tumor progression in numerous solid tumours through their inhibition of tumor-specific immune responses. These cells are increased in numerous pathologic conditions, including infections, inflammatory diseases, graft-versus-host disease, traumatic stress, and neoplastic diseases. MDSCs inhibit not only activation of [...]
Mechanism of Anthrax Toxins
Anthrax is an acute infectious disease caused by the spore-forming gram positive, aerobic bacterium Bacillus anthracis. Anthrax most commonly occurs in wild and domestic lower vertebrates (cattle, sheep, goats, camels, antelopes, and other herbivores), but it can also occur in humans when they are exposed to infected animals or tissue [...]
Mechanism of Botulinum Toxin
Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) is one of the most potent toxins that inhibit neurotransmitter release at the neuromuscular junction. The toxin is a microbial product synthesized by an anaerobic, gram-positive, spore-forming bacteria Clostridium botulinum whose natural habitat is soil. In addition to C. botulinum, unique strains of Clostridium baratii and Clostridium [...]
Mechanism of Protein Export in E. coli
The translocation of proteins from one compartment to another is an essential feature of cellular life. The proper functioning of extracytoplasmic proteins requires their export to, and productive folding in, the correct cellular compartment.  Gram-negative bacteria secrete a wide range of proteins whose functions include biogenesis of organelles, such as [...]
Melanocyte Development and Pigmentation
Human Skin is made up of two main layers, the Epidermis, which is described as a Stratified Squamous Epithelium mainly consisting of Keratinocytes, and the Dermis, an underlying layer of Vascularized Connective Tissue. Melanocytes reside at the junction of the Dermis and the Epidermis. Mature Melanocytes form long Dendritic processes [...]
Melatonin Signaling
In mammals, the circadian system is comprised of three major components: the lateral eyes, the hypothalamic SCN (Suprachiasmatic Nucleus) and the pineal gland. The SCN harbours the endogenous oscillator that is entrained everyday to the ambient lighting conditions via retinal input. Among the many circadian rhythms in the body that [...]
MIF Action Through Endocytic Pathway
The cytokine MIF (Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor) is an integral mediator of the innate immune system. Monocytes and macrophages constitutively express large amounts of MIF, which is rapidly released after exposure to bacterial toxins and cytokines. MIF exerts potent proinflammatory activities and is an important cytokine of septic shock. MIF [...]
MIF Mediated Glucocorticoid Regulation
Glucocorticoids are among the most potent anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive agents. They inhibit synthesis of almost all known cytokines, enzymes involved in the inflammatory process and of several cell surface molecules required for immune function. Glucocorticoids mediate these effects through an intracellular receptor, the GR (Glucocorticoid Receptor), a member of the [...]
MIF Regulation of Innate Immune Cells Recently Updated
The innate immune response to bacteria is essential for survival but the systemic release of inflammatory mediators results in the life-threatening Septic-shock reaction. Macrophages are essential effector cells of innate immunity that play a pivotal role in the recognition and elimination of invasive microorganisms. Mediators released by activated macrophages orchestrate innate and adaptive immune host responses.
miRNA in Cancer Recently Updated
Over the last decade, a growing number of non-coding transcripts have been found to have roles in gene regulation and RNA processing. The most well known small non-coding RNAs are the miRNAs/miRs (microRNAs), which have been found to be involved in human tumorigenesis, revealing a new layer in the molecular [...]
Mismatch Repair in Eukaryotes
The major DNA Repair mechanisms take advantage of the facts that DNA is double-stranded and the same information is present in both strands. Consequently, in cases where damage is present in just one strand, the damage can be accurately repaired by cutting it out (excision) and replacing it with new [...]
Mismatch Repair in Prokaryotes
The integrity of genetic information depends on the fidelity of DNA replication and on the efficiency of several different DNA repair processes. Among many types of DNA repair, the general MMR (DNA Mismatch Repair) pathway is responsible for correcting base substitution mismatches which is generated during DNA replication in organisms [...]
Mitochondrial Apoptosis Recently Updated
Apoptosis is a naturally occurring process by which a cell is directed to Programmed Cell Death.The Mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis functions in response to various types of intracellular stress including Growth Factor withdrawal, DNA damage, unfolding stresses in the Endoplasmic reticulum and Death Receptor stimulation.
Mitochondrial Protein Import Pathways Recently Updated
Mitochondrial precursor proteins can be separated into two main classes. Preproteins that are destined for the mitochondrial matrix, as well as a number of proteins of the inner membrane and intermembrane space, carry N-terminal cleavable extensions, termed presequences. These positively charged extensions function as targeting signals that interact with the mitochondrial import receptors and direct the preproteins across both outer and inner membranes.
Mitotic Roles of Polo Like Kinases
Cell division is characterized by orchestrated events of chromosome segregation, distribution of cellular organelles, and the eventual partitioning and separation of the two daughter cells. Mitosis is a highly regulated process that assures the proper allotment of genetic material between each pair of daughter cells. It proceeds through successive stages [...]
MNAR-PELP1 and Estrogen Receptor Interaction
Estrogen contributes to the development of three of the top five cancers of women--those of the breast, uterus, and ovaries--which together account for an estimated 240,000 new cancer cases a year in the United States alone (Ref.1). The ER (Estrogen Receptor) signaling pathway is implicated in the progression of cancer [...]
MODY (Maturity-Onset Diabetes of Young) Recently Updated
monogenic form of diabetes, MODY (Maturity-Onset Diabetes of Young)--primarily results from defects that affect the functioning of islet Beta-cells and the pancreas does not produce enough insulin. This in turn leads to hyperglycemia, or high blood sugar, which can cause the body to become resistant to insulin. The impaired secretion [...]
Molecular Mechanisms of Cancer Recently Updated
Cancer cell genotypes are a manifestation of six essential alterations in cell physiology that collectively dictate malignant growth; self-sufficiency in growth signals, insensitivity to growth-inhibitory (anti-growth) signals, evasion of programmed cell death (apoptosis), limitless replicative potential, sustained angiogenesis and tissue invasion and metastasis.
Mouse Early Embryo Development
Embryonic development is the generation of a multicellular organism from a single cell. During this process, tissues and organs are differentiated and positioned at different parts of the organism. In animals, Embryonic development consists of 4 stages: Cleavage, Patterning, Differentiation and Growth. Mammalian Cleavage is strikingly different from most other [...]
MSP-RON Signaling
One of the basic aspects of the immune response is that the host must be able to clear infections efficiently, while minimizing damage caused to host tissues and regulation of macrophage activities in response to inflammatory stimuli must be finely tuned to promote an effective immune response. MSP (Macrophage Stimulating [...]
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