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Signaling Pathways      Metabolic Pathways     All Pathways
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mTOR Pathway
mTOR (Mammalian Target of Rapamycin) is a 289-kDa serine/threonine protein kinase and a member of the PIKK (Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase-related Kinase) family. The protein consists of a Catalytic Kinase domain, an FRB (FKBP12–Rapamycin Binding) domain, a putative Auto-inhibitory domain (Repressor domain) near the C-terminus and up to 20 tandemly repeated HEAT motifs at the Amino terminus, as well as FAT (FRAP-ATM-TRRAP) and FATC (FAT C-terminus) domains.
Mucosal Healing through Trefoil Factors
Epithelial continuity depends on a family of small, yet abundant, secreted proteins the TFFs (Trefoil Factors). TFFs are considered as 'Rapid Response' agents to mucosal injury; with up-regulation of expression in the early stages of mucosal repair. These peptides are involved in mucosal maintenance and repair through motogenic and anti-apoptotic [...]
Murine METS Protein Signaling
The macrophage differentiation system in mouse establishes the fact that, the macrophages stop proliferate during the process of cell differentiation. Induction of METS (Mitogenic Ets Transcriptional Suppressor METS) otherwise known as Ets (E26 Avian Leukemia Oncogene) repressor, leads to terminal differentiation and cell cycle arrest. Inside macrophages, METS blocks HRas1 (Harvey Rat [...]
Murine MSP-STK Signaling
Immune and inflammatory responses are rightly regulated to maintain a homoeostatic balance between an effective immune response and tissue damage to the host. Nitric Oxide is the principal mediator of many of the cytokine-inducible macrophage activities during a normal cell-mediated immune response. STK (Stem Cell-Derived Tyrosine Kinase), the murine homolog [...]
Muscular Dystrophies and Dystrophin-Glycoprotein Complex
Muscular dystrophy is a genetically heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by progressive weakness and degeneration of the skeletal or voluntary muscles which control movement. This group of diseases has three features in common: they are hereditary, they are progressive and each causes a characteristic, selective pattern of weakness. Some forms [...]
Nanog in Mammalian ESC Pluripotency
ESCs (Embryonic stem cells) are Pluripotent cells derived from the ICM (Inner Cell Mass) of Blastocyst-stage embryos. These cells have two distinctive properties: an unlimited capacity for Self-renewal and Pluripotency. The capability for Self-renewal and the Pluripotency of ESCs seem to be under the control of multiple transcriptional factors, most [...]
Netrin Signaling
Directional information is provided to migrating neurons and growth cones in the form of extracellular cues, whose presence, absence, or concentration differential is transduced into effects on the cytoskeletal machinery that underlie motility. Among the best-characterized secreted guidance cues are the Netrins, Semaphorins, Ephrins, and Slit protein families. Several of [...]
Neuropathic Pain-Signaling in Dorsal Horn Neurons
Living organisms need to sense noxious stimuli in their immediate environment to avoid potentially hazardous situations and thus survive. To this end, multicellular creatures have evolved a specialized apparatus: the Nociceptors to differentiate innocuous from noxious stimuli. Multiple transduction molecules within the Nociceptor enable the organisms for sensing heat, cold; [...]
NF-KappaB (p50-p65) Pathway
Survival of an organism is dependent on its ability to rapidly and effectively respond to adverse changes in its environment. Eukaryotic cells possess a number of distinct signal transduction pathways that couple environmental stimuli to specific changes of gene expression. One such pathway is the transcription factor NF-KappaB (Nuclear Factor-KappaB), which is [...]
NF-KappaB Activation by EBV
The EBV (Epstein–Barr Virus) is a member of the human herpes virus family, which infects greater than 90% of the world’s population. EBV is linked to the development of several malignancies, primarily of lymphoid and epithelial cell origin, including Burkitt’s lymphoma, post-transplant lymphoma, AIDS-associated lymphomas, Hodgkin’s disease, T-Cell lymphoma, NPC [...]
NF-kappaB Activation by Viruses
As viruses evolve under the highly selective pressures of the immune system, they acquire the capacity to target critical steps in the host cell life, hijacking vital cellular functions to promote viral pathogenesis. Many virus infections induce a proinflammatory response including expression of cytokines and chemokines. The viral surface GP [...]
NF-KappaB Family Pathway Recently Updated
NF-KappaB (Nuclear Factor-KappaB) is a heterodimeric protein composed of different combinations of members of the Rel family of transcription factors. The Rel/ NF-KappaB family of transcription factors are involved mainly in stress-induced, immune, and inflammatory responses.
NF-KappaB Orthologue in Fruitfly (Drosophila melanogaster)
NF-KappaB (Nuclear factor-KappaB)/Rel proteins are dimeric, sequence-specific transcription factors involved in the activation of an exceptionally large number of genes in response to inflammation, viral and bacterial infections, and other stressful situations requiring rapid reprogramming of gene expression. Rel/NF-KappaB transcription factors include a collection of proteins, conserved from the fruit [...]
NFAT and Cardiac Hypertrophy
Cardiac failure, one of the largest health care burdens in the United States and other developed countries is often associated with prolonged and maladaptive cardiac hypertrophy, defined as a compensatory mechanism of the heart that helps to maintain cardiac output during pathological states with sustained increases in hemodynamic load (Ref.1). [...]
NFAT in Immune Response
Antigenic stimulation of lymphocytes and other cells of the immune system initiates a complex series of intracellular signal transduction pathways that lead to the expression of a panel of immunoregulatory genes, whose function is critical to the initiation and coordination of the immune response. NFATs (Nuclear Factors of Activated T-Cells), [...]
NFAT Signaling and Lymphocyte Interactions
The optimum functioning of the immune system is crucial for human survival. The invading pathogens are encountered by the cells of the immune system, which include T-Cells, B-Cells, macrophages, neutrophils, basophils, eosinophils, endothelial cells, or mast cells. These cells have distinct roles in the immune system, and cell-to-cell communication among [...]
NGF Pathway
One of the most fundamental issues in current biology is how to maintain the critical balance between cell survival and death, both during development and in adulthood. Unrestrained cell division and survival leads to various forms of tumor, while excessive or premature cell death may lead to a variety of [...]
NgR-75(NTR)-Mediated Signaling
Axon regeneration is arrested in the injured CNS (Central Nervous System) by axon growth-inhibitory ligands expressed in oligodendrocytes/myelin and reactive astrocytes in the lesion and by fibroblasts in scar tissue. Growth cone receptors bind inhibitory ligands, activating a Rho-family GTPase intracellular signaling pathway that disrupts the actin cytoskeleton inducing growth [...]
NK1R-mediated Non-Apoptotic PCD
Cell death has been divided into two main types: PCD (Programmed Cell Death), in which the cell plays an active role, and Necrotic (passive) cell death. PCD is a form of cell death in which the cell plays an active role in its own demise. In contrast, Necrosis is characterized [...]
nNOS Signaling at Neuronal Synapses
NO (Nitric Oxide) is formed endogenously by a family of enzymes known as NOS (NO Synthases). The distribution of different isoforms of NOS is largely related to their respective functions. Three distinct isoforms of NOS have been identified: nNOS (also known as NOSI and NOS-1) being the isoform first found [...]
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