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Signaling Pathways      Metabolic Pathways     All Pathways
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nNOS Signaling in Skeletal Muscle Recently Updated
NO (Nitric Oxide) is formed endogenously by a family of enzymes known as NOS (NO Synthases). The distribution of different isoforms of NOS is largely related to their respective functions. Three distinct isoforms of NOS have been identified: nNOS (also known as NOSI and NOS-1) being the isoform first found [...]
Notch Signaling
The Notch signaling pathway is a fundamental signaling system used by neighboring cells to communicate with each other in order to assume their proper developmental role. Notch proteins are cell surface transmembrane-spanning receptors which mediate critically important cellular functions through direct cell-cell contact. Interaction between Notch and its proposed ligands [...]
The Gram-negative bacterium NTHi (Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae) is an important human respiratory pathogen in children and adults. In children, it causes OM (Otitis Media), the most common childhood infection and the leading cause of conductive hearing loss (Ref.1) whereas in adults, it exacerbates COPD (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases), the fourth [...]
Nuclear Receptor Activation by Vitamin-A
Retinoids (an analogue of Vitamin-A (all-trans-Retinol)) and Retinoic Acid (a metabolite of Vitamin-A), regulate expression of target genes through binding and activation of the nuclear receptors like RARs (Retinoic Acid Receptors) and the RXRs (Retinoid X Receptors). all-trans-Retinoic Acid, the Carboxylic Acid form of Vitamin-A is of biological significance since [...]
Nucleotide Excision Repair Pathway
The inability to repair DNA damage properly leads to various disorders and enhanced rates of tumor development. Mammals respond to chromosomal insults by activating a complex damage response pathway. These pathways regulate known responses such as cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, and have recently been shown to control additional processes [...]
Nur77 Signaling in T-Cell
During development in the thymus, immature thymocytes which express self-reactive TCR (T-Cell Receptor) are eliminated from the developing T-cell repertoire. This process of clonal deletion, or negative selection is mediated by Apoptotic signals delivered to thymocytes whose TCR have a high affinity for Self-Antigen/MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complexes)-Antigen Complexes. This mechanism [...]
Nur77-Induced AICD in Macrophage
PCD (Programmed Cell Death), often referred to as Apoptosis, is a genetically regulated, self-destructive cellular process found in metazoans. It eliminates individual cells when they are no longer needed in development, tissue remodeling, or immune regulation, as well as in various diseases. In immune cells, Apoptosis is a key phenomenon [...]
Oct4 in Mammalian ESC Pluripotency
Stem cells are undifferentiated cells capable of producing virtually all cell types in our body. They are characterized by the ability to Self-renew and maintain Pluripotency. For proper developmental outcome, ESCs (Embryonic Stem Cells) must tightly regulate their differentiation status. Hundreds of genes have been identified, including several transcription factors, [...]
Olfactory Signal Transduction
The olfactory system is a very efficient biological setup capable of odor information processing with neural signals. The mammalian olfactory system can recognize and discriminate a large number of different odorant molecules. The detection of chemically distinct odorants presumably results from the association of odorous ligands with specific receptors on [...]
Olfactory System
Our chemical senses, taste and smell, are our oldest senses. Long before organisms could hear or see, they needed to find nutrients, had to avoid toxic substances, and they were attracted by signaling molecules that were released by their mating partners. Right from the beginning of evolution, the task of [...]
OSM Pathway
Proinflammatory cytokines are the principal intercellular mediators of the tissue reaction to trauma and infection. Members of IL-6 (Interleukin-6) hematopoietic cytokine family, that include IL-6, IL-11, LIF (Leukemia Inhibitor Factor), OSM (Oncostatin M), CNF (Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor), Cardiotrophin-1, and the recently described novel Neurotrophin-1/B-Cell Stimulatory Factor-3 play a particularly prominent [...]
OX40 Pathway
OX40 is a T-Cell activator that is believed to promote the survival (and perhaps prolong the immune response) of CD4+ T cells at sites of inflammation. The co-stimulatory molecule OX40L (OX40 Ligand), a member of the TNF (Tumor Necrosis Factor) super family, is a 32 kDa protein, which has a [...]
P2Y Receptor Signaling
Angiogenesis plays an important role in pathological events such as tumor growth, wound healing, psoriasis, and the ischemic retinopathies that occur in diabetes and sickle cell disease. The main modulators of the angiogenesis process in adults, is achieved through signaling by peptide growth factors, however, recent researches also emphasize the [...]
p38 Signaling
Cellular responses to many external stimuli involve the activation of several types of MAPK (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase) signaling pathways. MAPKs are a family of Serine/threonine kinases that comprise 3 major subgroups, namely, ERK (Extracellular signal–Regulated Kinase), p38 MAPK and JNK (c-Jun N-terminal Kinases). Despite the diversity in function and upstream [...]
p53 Mediated Apoptosis
P53, the most extensively studied tumor suppressor, is a regulative factor of many processes necessary for the proper functioning of cells, and it corresponds to a number of processes associated with its life and death. The p53 protein regulates the repair of cellular DNA and induces apoptosis when the damage [...]
p53 Signaling Recently Updated
p53 is a tumour suppressor protein that regulates the expression of a wide variety of genes involved in Apoptosis, Growth arrest, Inhibition of cell cycle progression, Differentiation and accelerated DNA repair or Senescence in response to Genotoxic or Cellular Stress. As a transcription factor, p53 is composed of an N-terminal [...]
p70S6K Signaling
p70S6K is a protein Ser-Thr kinase that phosphorylates the ribosomal S6 subunit, a component of the 40S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. It plays a role in protein synthesis and in cell growth control during G1 phase in vivo to enhance translation of certain mRNA species. This enzyme has complex regulation: Phosphorylation by PDK-1 (Phosphoinositide [...]
PACAP Signaling
PACAP (Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide) is a member of the secretin glucagon-VIP (Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide) family of peptides and is widely distributed in the brain and peripheral organs, notably in the endocrine pancreas, gonads, and respiratory and urogenital tracts. Within the CNS, PACAP serves as a neurotransmitter, neurohormone, neuromodulator, secretagogue, [...]
PAK Pathway
PAKs (p21-Activated Protein Kinases) are a growing family of serine/threonine protein kinases, which are activated in response to extracellular signals and regulate cell shape and motility. PAKs regulate diverse cellular functions, including gene expression, cytoskeletal actin assembly, MAPK (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase) pathways, neurite outgrowth, cell cycle control, and cell apoptosis [...]
PAK Signaling in Fission Yeast
Simple eukaryotes such as yeasts and molds encode multiple PAKs (p21-Activated Kinases) that, like their orthologs in other systems, act downstream of Rho-family GTPases. All PAKs contain an N-terminal PBD (p21 GTPase-Binding-Domain), which confers binding to small GTPases such as CDC42 (Cell Division Cycle-42) or Rac, and a C-terminal protein [...]
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