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PKR Pathway
PKR (Protein kinase-R) is a ubiquitously expressed serine-threonine kinase that has been implicated as a signal integrator in translational and transcriptional control pathways. PKR mediates apoptosis induced by many different stimuli, such as LPS (Lipopolysaccharides), IFN-Gamma (Interferon-Gamma), cytokines, growth factor, viral infection, or serum starvation. PKR activity is regulated by external signals, which act [...]
Poliovirus Replication Cycle
Poliovirus is a member of the Picornaviridae family, which includes a number of significant pathogens of humans (e.g., Rhinoviruses, Coxsackieviruses, Echoviruses, Enteroviruses, and Hepatitis-A virus) and livestock (e.g., foot-and-mouth disease viruses). Poliovirus has three known serotypes: PV1, PV2, and PV3 and all three serotypes can cause poliomyelitis, a paralytic disease [...]
Polyamine Regulation in Colon Cancer
Polyamines are vital for the growth and function of normal cells. The complexity of polyamine metabolism and the multitude of compensatory mechanisms that are invoked to maintain polyamine homoeostasis argue that these amines are critical to cell survival. The regulation of polyamine content within cells occurs at several levels, including [...]
Poxvirus Infection Cycle
Poxviruses (of the family Poxviridae) are a family of the largest and most complex viruses that infect humans. They are large brick-shaped or ovoid complex dsDNA (double-stranded DNA) viruses capable of replicating in the cell cytoplasm independent of the cell nucleus and have in common the propensity to produce cutaneous [...]
PPAR Pathway
Nuclear hormone receptors are transcription factors that bind DNA and regulate transcription in a ligand-dependent manner. PPARs (Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors) are ligand-inducible transcription factors that belong to the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily, together with the receptors for thyroid hormone, retinoids, steroid hormones and vitamin D that act as ligand-activated transcription [...]
Presenilin-Mediated Signaling
Presenilins are polytopic transmembrane proteins, mutations in which are associated with the occurrence of Early-onset familial Alzheimer's disease, a rare form of the disease that results from a single-gene mutation. The physiological functions of Presenilins are unknown, but they may be related to Developmental signaling, Apoptotic signal transduction, or processing [...]
Prion Pathway
Prion diseases or TSEs (Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies) form a biologically unique group of infectious fatal neurodegenerative disorders, which are caused by toxic gain of function in a normal host cell protein (the Prion protein, PrP). The mechanism of disease propagation is well understood and involves the conformational conversion of a [...]
Progesterone-Induced Oocyte Maturation in X. laevis
Female fertility requires precise regulation of oocyte meiosis. Females from nearly every species of animal are born with their full complement of oocytes; however, these immature oocytes remain arrested in Prophase-I of meiosis, till the time of ovulation (Ref.1). During this long period of Prophase arrest, the oocyte becomes enclosed [...]
Prolactin Signaling
Prl (Prolactin), a multifunctional hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary gland and to a lesser extent by numerous extrapituitary tissues, affects more physiological processes than all other pituitary hormones combined. It was originally identified by its ability to stimulate the development of the mammary gland and lactation. However, this hormone [...]
Protein Acetylation and Deacetylation
Eukaryotic transcription is a highly regulated process, and acetylation plays a major role in this regulation. Acetylation can occur on histones, DNA-binding TF (Transcription Factors), acetylases, nuclear import factors, non-nuclear proteins (Alpha-tubulin) and proteins that shuttle from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, such as the Importin-Alpha family of nuclear import [...]
Protein Import Mechanism in Chloroplast
Chloroplasts represent the most prominent members of a diverse group of essential organelles referred to collectively as the plastids. Plastids are a heterogeneous family of organelles found ubiquitously in plant and algal cells. Chloroplasts perform a variety of biochemical functions within plant cells. They contain the green pigment chlorophyll and [...]
Protein Transport Pathways in A.thaliana Thylakoid
Chloroplasts are exceptionally complex organelles found ubiquitously in Plant and Algal cells. Chloroplasts contain at least six suborganellar compartments: Outer and Inner membranes, Intermembrane Space, Stroma, and Thylakoid membrane and Lumen, all of which require specific trafficking systems. The Thylakoid membrane of the Chloroplast accounts for the bulk of the [...]
PTEN Pathway Recently Updated
Tumorigenesis is the result of abnormal activation of growth programs in the cells. Cancer cells escape normal growth control mechanisms as a consequence of activating mutations, or increased expression of one or more cellular protooncogenes, and/or inactivating mutations, or decreased expression of one or more tumor suppressor genes. Most oncogene [...]
Rac1 Pathway
To achieve strong adhesion to their neighbors and sustain stress and tension, epithelial cells develop many different specialized adhesive structures. Breakdown of these structures occurs during tumor progression with the development of a fibroblastic morphology characteristic of metastatic cells. Adhesion receptors of the Cadherin family have been implicated in these [...]
Ran Pathway
Ran is a member of the Ras family of small GTPases. The Ran subgroup is represented by its lone member, Ran, that is distinguished from Ras GTPases by its lipid modification and atypical subcellular localization. Unlike most other Ras-related proteins, Ran is not modified to bind to cell membranes. Instead, [...]
RANK Pathway
Bone remodeling and homeostasis is an essential function that regulates skeletal integrity throughout adult life in higher vertebrates and mammals. The structural and metabolic integrity of bone is maintained through the dynamic process of bone remodeling that results from the coordinate action of bone resorption by osteoclasts and the formation [...]
RANK Signaling in Osteoclasts
TNF (Tumor Necrosis Factor) and TNFR (Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor) family proteins play important roles in the control of cell death, proliferation, autoimmunity, the function of immune cells, or the organogenesis of lymphoid organs. Recently, novel members of this large family have been identified that have critical functions in immunity [...]
Rap1 Pathway
Rap1 (Krev-1/smg p21), a small-molecular-weight GTP-binding protein that belongs to the Ras-like superfamily of GTPases, is involved in signal transduction cascades. It is highly homologous to Ras but it is down regulated by its own set of GAPs (GTPase-Activating Proteins). Rap1 is implicated in the regulation of a variety of [...]
RAR-Alpha-PML Fusion During APL
AMLs (Acute Myeloid Leukemias) are characterized with chromosomal translocations resulting in the formation of fusion proteins. Understanding PML (Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia Inducer) function has become an area of intense research because of its involvement in the pathogenesis of APL (Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia), a distinct subtype of Myeloid Leukemia. In the [...]
RAR-Gamma-RXR-Alpha Degradation
In response to Retinoic Acid (a metabolite of Vitamin-A (all-trans-Retinol), which affects gene transcription), target genes are regulated by two families of nuclear receptors, the RARs (Retinoic Acid Receptors) and the RXRs (Retinoid X Receptors) that bind as RAR/RXR heterodimers to response elements located in their promoters. The all-trans-Retinoic Acid, [...]
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