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Signaling Pathways      Metabolic Pathways     All Pathways
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Akt Signaling Recently Updated
Akt (v-Akt Murine Thymoma Viral Oncogene)/ PKB (Protein Kinase-B) is a Serine/threonine Kinase that is involved in mediating various biological responses, such as inhibition of Apoptosis and stimulation of cell proliferation. Three mammalian isoforms are currently known: Akt1/PKB- Alpha, Akt2/PKB-Beta and Akt3/PKB-Gamma. All three isoforms of Akt share a common structure of [...]
 
Aldosterone Signaling in Epithelial Cells
Sodium transport across the tight epithelia of Na+ reabsorbing tissues such as the distal nephron and colon is the major factor determining total body Na+ levels, and thus, long term blood pressure. Aldosterone, a steroid hormone that is primarily produced in the zona glomerulosa, the outer layer of the adrenal [...]
 
all-trans-Retinoic Acid Mediated Apoptosis
Retinoic Acid, a lipophilic molecule and a metabolite of Vitamin-A (all-trans-Retinol), affects gene transcription and modulates a wide variety of biological processes like Cell Proliferation, Differentiation, including Apoptosis. Retinoic Acid mediated gene transcription depends on the rate of transport of Retinoic Acid to target cells and the timing of exposure [...]
 
Allergic Response Pathway
Atopy or Allergic disease is a complex familial disorder with multiple manifestations, including allergic asthma, rhinitis, conjunctivitis, and dermatitis. Allergens are derived from different sources such as cockroaches, ragweed pollens, and house dust mites.
 
Alpha-Adrenergic Signaling
ADRs (Adrenergic Receptors) are expressed on virtually every cell type in the body and are the receptors for Adrenaline, Epinephrine and Norepinephrine within the Sympathetic Nervous System. They serve critical roles in maintaining homeostasis in normal physiologic settings as well as pathologic states. These receptors are also targets for therapeutically administered agonists [...]
 
Alternative Complement Pathway
The complement system refers to a series of proteins circulating in the blood and bathing the fluids surrounding tissues. The proteins circulate in an inactive form, but in response to the recognition of molecular components of microorganism, they become sequentially activated, working in a cascade where in the binding of [...]
 
Alzheimer’s Disease Pathway Recently Updated
AD (Alzheimer’s Disease) is a neurodegenerative disorder leading to amnesia, cognitive impairment, and senile dementia. Two types of lesions characterize the disease: SPs (Amyloid or Senile Plaques) resulting from the extracellular aggregation of ABeta (Amyloid Beta) peptide, which is derived from a ubiquitous type I transmembrane protein named APP (Amyloid [...]
 
AMPK Enzyme Complex Pathway
One of the key functions of catabolic metabolism is to maintain high levels of ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate) and cells rapidly respond to any stress that threatens to lower ATP levels by arresting non-essential ATP-utilizing functions and stimulating available ATP-generating pathways. A central player in this system is the AMPK (AMP (Adenosine 5'-Monophosphate)-Activated Protein Kinase). AMPK is a master metabolic regulator responsible for modulating cellular responses to an
 
Androgen Signaling Recently Updated
Androgens are recognized as genotropic inducers of a number of physiological functions mainly associated with the development of sexual characteristics. Androgens promote the growth and differentiation of prostate cells through ligand activation of the AR (Androgen Receptor) (Ref.1&2).The AR, upon activation
 
Angiopoietin-TIE2 Signaling Recently Updated
Development of a functional cardiovascular system is dependent on the regulated proliferation, migration, and differentiation of endothelial cells in two discrete processes known as vasculogenesis and angiogenesis. Vasculogenesis involves the formation of heart and large vessels as well as primary capillary networks. Following vasculogenesis, endothelial cells proliferate and migrate into [...]
 
Antigen Processing and Presentation by MHCs
In order to initiate a specific immune response to an infectious agent, the immune system must be able to wade through the sea of molecules that are associated with pathogenic invasion and isolate particular protein products that will sharpen the efforts of host defense. Implicit to this model of counteraction [...]
 
Antimalaria Drug Mechanism
The control of malaria largely depends on drug therapies, and, to a lesser extent, prophylaxis. Most of the antimalarial drugs available currently have been in use for decades, but their use is now severely limited by the emergence and spread of drug resistance, primarily in Plasmodium falciparum, the malaria parasite that causes severe forms of the disease and most of the disease burden.
 
Antioxidant Action of Vitamin-C
Oxidative stress/Hypoxia is induced by a wide range of environmental factors including UV stress, pathogen invasion (hypersensitive reaction), oxygen shortage, etc. Generation of ROS (Reactive Oxygen Species) is characteristic feature of such stress conditions. Of the ROS, both Hydrogen Peroxide and Superoxide are produced in a number of cellular reactions and by [...]
 
Antiproliferative Role of SSTR2
Somatostatin is a widely distributed peptide hormone that plays an important inhibitory role in several biological processes, including neurotransmission, exocrine and endocrine secretions, and cell proliferation (Ref.1). Somatostatin acts via a family of five GPCRs (G-Protein-Coupled Receptors): SSTR1-SSTR5 (Somatostatin Receptors) that are variably expressed throughout numerous tissues ranging from the [...]
 
Apoptosis in Drosophila
Apoptosis refers to an evolutionarily conserved method of Cell Death that is characterized by specific morphological and biochemical properties.  Morphologically, Apoptosis is characterized by a series of structural changes in dying cells: Blebbing of the plasma membrane, Condensation of the cytoplasm and nucleus, and Cellular Fragmentation into membrane Apoptotic bodies. [...]
 
Apoptosis through Death Receptors
Apoptosis is a cell suicide mechanism that enables metazoans to control cell number in tissues and to eliminate individual cells that threaten the animal's survival. Certain cells have unique sensors, termed DR (Death Receptors), on their surface, which detect the presence of extracellular death signals and, in response, they rapidly [...]
 
Apoptotic Pathways in Synovial Fibroblasts
RA (Rheumatoid Arthritis) is a chronic inflammatory disease of unknown etiology affecting diarthrodial joints. Inflammation and hyperplasia of the synovium are the hallmarks of RA. The normal synovium is a delicate tissue lining the joint capsule; however, in RA, the synovium transforms into an aggressive, tumor-like structure called the pannus. [...]
 
Apoptotic Pathways Triggered By HIV1 Recently Updated
Viruses have evolved numerous mechanisms to evade the host immune system and one of the strategies developed by HIV1 (Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type-1) is to activate apoptotic programmes that destroy immune effectors. Not only does the HIV genome encode pro-apoptotic proteins, which kill both infected and uninfected lymphocytes through either [...]
 
APRIL Pathway Recently Updated
The TNF (Tumor Necrosis Factor) family has an important role in inducing various biological responses such as cell proliferation, differentiation, survival, and death (Ref.1). TNF ligand family members are synthesized as transmembrane proteins, and cleavage of the membrane-anchored proteins from the cell surface is frequently observed. APRIL (A Proliferation-Inducing Ligand) [...]
 
Asexual Sporulation in A. nidulans
The signal transduction cascades regulating asexual sporulation in the Ascomycetous filamentous fungi A. nidulans (Aspergillus nidulans) can be divided into two phases: a Growth phase, in which cells become competent to respond to sporulation-inducing signals and an Asexual reproduction phase, including initiation of the Sporulation pathway and formation of spore-bearing [...]
 
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