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Signaling Pathways      Metabolic Pathways     All Pathways
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Ras Pathway
Ras is a membrane-associated guanine nucleotide-binding protein that is normally activated in response to the binding of extracellular signals, such as growth factors, RTKs (Receptor Tyrosine Kinases), TCR (T-Cell Receptors) and PMA (Phorbol-12 Myristate-13 Acetate). Ras signaling affects many cellular functions, which includes cell proliferation, apoptosis, migration, fate specification, and [...]
Reelin Pathway
Reelin is a large extracellular glycoprotein involved in the development of architectonic patterns, particularly in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus, where primarily Cajal-Retzius cells synthesize it. In the hippocampus, Reelin also regulates the growth and/or distribution of afferent entorhinal and commissural axons (Ref.1). Reelin encodes an mRNA of approximately 12 [...]
Regulation of eIF4 and p70S6K
eIF4 (Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-4) and p70S6K play critical roles in translational regulation. The signaling pathway that regulates p70S6k also regulates the phosphorylation of 4EBP1 (4E-Binding Protein), although there appears to be a bifurcation in the pathway upstream of p70S6K and 4EBP1. Recruitment of mRNAs to ribosomes to initiate translation is mediated by initiation factors of the [...]
Relaxin Pathway Recently Updated
Relaxin is a polypeptide hormone that is secreted by the corpus luteum, into the circulation during the menstrual cycle and throughout pregnancy. During the cycle, it stimulates blood vessel growth in the endometrial lining of the uterus during the midluteal phase, coincident with the temporal window during which embryonic implantation [...]
Remodeling of Adherens Junctions
The intercellular Adherens Junctions (AJs) are specialized sub-apical structures that function as principle mediators of cell-cell adhesion. Their disassembly correlates with a loss of cell-cell contact and an acquisition of migratory potential. The Adherens Junctions have a crucial role both as sensors of extracellular stimuli and in regulating the dynamics [...]
Renin-Angiotensin Pathway
Proliferation and migration of VSMCs (Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells) in arteries plays an important role in the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis, hypertension, and restenosis after angioplasty. A wide variety of growth factors, cytokines, and hormones activate these responses in blood vessels. A prominent growth factor for VSMCs is Angiotensin (Angiotensin-I and [...]
Repair of 8-oxoG by hOGG1
The genome of all living organisms are constantly exposed to exogenous and endogenous DNA-damaging agents and the greatest amount of damage is inflicted by the endogenous agents water and oxygen, which modify primarily the aromatic DNA bases. While ROS (Reactive Oxygen Species) such as hydroxyl radicals convert guanine (G) to [...]
Repair of O6-MeG by MGMT
Alkylating reagents cause damage to DNA (mainly at O6-G (Guanine), O4-T (Thymine) and O2-T positions in DNA) similar to that induced by ultraviolet irradiation. The bases altered by these reagents are primarily purines (phosphate oxygen is also targets), and the spectrum of products formed varies with the reagent used. An [...]
Repair of Thymine Dimers
Irradiation of DNA by UV (Ultraviolet light) causes lesions, such as Cyclobutane-Pyrimidine Dimers or 6-4PPs (6-4 Pyrimidine Pyrimidone). The most common covalently linked adjoining pyrimidines are T-T (Thymine dimers), T-C (Thymine-Cytosine dimers) and C-C (Cytosine-Cytosine dimers). T-T dimers cause kinks in the DNA strand that prevent both replication and transcription [...]
Repair of Thymine Dimers in E. coli
UV radiation induces two of the most abundant mutagenic and cytotoxic DNA lesions such as CPD (Cyclobutane-Pyrimidine Dimers) or 6-4PPs (6-4 Pyrimidine Pyrimidone). The most common covalently linked adjoining pyrimidines are TT(Thymine dimers), T-C (Thymine-Cytosine dimers) and C-C (Cytosine-Cytosine dimers). T-T dimers cause kinks in the DNA strand that prevent both replication [...]
Repair of Uracil Residues
The integrity and accuracy of the DNA is of critical importance to the cell, but the organization of DNA into chromatin in eukaryotic cells afford little protection against formation of DNA base damage generated spontaneously through hydrolysis, since DNA remains hydrated in chromatin. Two frequently occurring hydrolytic reactions are depurination [...]
Rho Family GTPases Recently Updated
The Rho family of small GTP-binding proteins comprises a group of signaling molecules that are activated by a variety of Growth factors, Cytokines, Adhesion molecules, Hormones, Integrins, G-proteins and other biologically active substances and regulate a wide range of biological processes, including Reorganization of the Actin Cytoskeleton, Transcriptional Regulation, Vesicle Trafficking, Morphogenesis, [...]
RhoA Pathway
Rho is a member of the Ras superfamily of small GTP-binding proteins that play a central role in diverse biological processes such as Actin cytoskeleton organization, Microtubule dynamics, Gene transcription, Oncogenic transformation, Cell cycle progression, Adhesion and Epithelial wound repair. To date, 20 genes encoding different members of the Rho [...]
RhoGDI Pathway
The Rho family of small GTPase proteins comprises CDC42 (Cell Division Cycle-42), Rac, and Rho. Proteins of the Rho/Rac subfamily (Rho proteins) of small GTP-binding proteins function as molecular switches that regulate a multitude of biological processes including cell proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation, migration, cytoskeletal reorganization, and membrane trafficking. Like most of the Ras-related proteins, Rho GTPases [...]
RNAi Pathway
RNAi (RNA interference) is a cellular pathway of gene silencing in a sequence-specific manner at the mRNA (messenger RNA) level. The basic mechanism behind RNAi is the breaking of a dsRNA (double-stranded RNA) matching a specific gene sequence into short pieces of RNAs called siRNA (small interfering RNA). siRNAs are [...]
Rotavirus Induced Diarrhea
Acute gastroenteritis is among the most common illnesses of humankind, and its associated morbidity and mortality are greatest among those at the extremes of age, children and the elderly. In developing countries, gastroenteritis is a common cause of death in children that can be linked to a wide variety of [...]
S-1P Stimulated Signaling
Various lipid molecules serve as second messengers for transducing signals from the cell surface to the cell interior and trigger specific cellular responses. Sphingolipids represent a complex group of lipids that have recently emerged as new transducers in eukaryotic cells. Sphingolipids are found in all mammalian cells and are mostly [...]
Salmonella Infection
Phagocytic cells are a critical line of defense against infection. The ability of a pathogen to survive and even replicate within phagocytic cells is a potent method of evading the defense mechanisms of the host. A number of pathogens survive within macrophages after phagocytosis and this contributes to their virulence. [...]
SARS CoV Replication Mechanism
SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome) is a newly emerged infection in humans characterized by fever and pneumonia. This disease may progress rapidly to ARDS (Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome) with considerable morbidity and mortality. It was first identified in the Guandong Province of China in November 2002, and a major outbreak [...]
Semaphorin Signaling
The semaphorins are a family of growth cone guidance molecules, conserved from insects to mammals, which includes proteins strongly implicated in mediating repulsive guidance during neurodevelopment and neuronal regeneration. The range of neurons responsive to semaphorins is extensive and includes dorsal root ganglion, sympathetic, motor, cerebellar, hippocampal, olfactory and corticospinal [...]
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