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Shedding of MICA-B Antigens
T cell responses against tumors require the recognition of specific peptides derived from tumor antigens in association with MIC (MHC Class I Molecules) by CD81 T cells expressing TCRs (T Cell Receptors). Such response generates intracellular antigen processing which are highly selective and binds only to some of the numerous [...]
Shigella Invasion
Bacterial pathogens possess highly specialized adaptive processes that enable their penetration of the host intestinal epithelium and cause disease. Once bound to the epithelial surface, bacteria may colonize and establish a permanent residence in the gut. Some Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria have acquired sophisticated 'molecular syringes', such as Type-III or Type-IV [...]
Signaling by Slit
Neuronal growth cones in the developing nervous system are guided to their targets by attractive and repulsive guidance molecules, which include members of the Netrin, Semaphorin, Ephrin, and Slit protein families. Slit is a ~200 KD secretory protein originally shown to be expressed by neurons and glial cells. Slit was [...]
Signaling in Gap Junctions
Gap Junction (GJ) channels span two plasma membranes and are formed by the alignment of two hemichannels, each consisting of an oligomer of structural subunit proteins, called Cxs (Connexins). These junctional proteins constitute a multigene family whose members are distinguished according to their predicted molecular weight in kilodaltons. A Connexin [...]
Signaling Involved in Cardiac Hypertrophy
Myocardial hypertrophy is an adaptational response of the heart to increased work load, but it is also associated with a high risk of cardiac mortality due to its established role in the development of cardiac failure, one of the leading causes of death in developed countries (Ref.1). The hypertrophic growth [...]
siRNA Pathway
Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) are 21–23nt dsRNA (double-stranded RNA) molecules that facilitate potent and sequence-specific gene suppression via the mechanism of RNAi (RNA interference). When introduced into cultured mammalian cells, siRNAs facilitate the degradation of mRNA sequences to which they are homologous, thereby silencing the encoding gene. The basic mechanism [...]
siRNA Pathway in Drosophila and S.pombe
siRNAs (Small interfering RNAs) have gained much attention for their powerful ability to suppress gene expression. Introduction of dsRNA (double-stranded RNA), that are homologous in sequence to a gene, has proven to suppress that gene’s expression through a process known as RNAi (RNA interference). The basic mechanism behind RNAi is [...]
siRNA Pathway in Nematode and Mammal
Introduction of dsRNA (double-stranded RNA), that are homologous in sequence to a gene, has proven to suppress that gene’s expression through a process known as RNAi (RNA interference). The mechanism of RNAi involves the breaking of a dsRNA matching a specific gene sequence into siRNA (Small interfering RNAs). These siRNAs [...]
Skin Blistering Disease
A blister (bulla) is a bubble of fluid that forms beneath a thin layer of dead skin. The fluid is a mixture of water and proteins that oozes from injured tissue. Blisters most commonly form in response to a specific injury, such as a burn or irritation, and usually involve [...]
SMAD Signaling Network
TGF-Beta (Transforming Growth Factor-Beta) superfamily of secreted polypeptide growth factors play an important role in a variety of pathophysiologic processes, including angiogenesis, vascular remodeling, atherogenesis and in regulating cellular responses such as growth, proliferation, differentiation, migration, adhesion, survival, and specification of developmental fate. Apart from TGF-Beta, the superfamily also includes [...]
SOCS Pathway
SOCS (Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling) proteins attenuate Cytokine and Tyrosine Kinase receptor signaling pathways (including those that regulate the immune system) by providing a negative feedback signal to prevent excessive cellular activation that can be lethal. The SOCS proteins regulate signal transduction by combining direct inhibitory interactions with cytokine and/or [...]
SOS Repair in E. coli
All organisms are exposed to a multitude of DNA damaging agents ranging from UV (Ultraviolet) light to fungal metabolites, like Aflatoxin B1. Furthermore, DNA damaging agents, such as ROS (Reactive Oxygen Species), can be produced by cells themselves as metabolic byproducts and intermediates. Together, these agents pose a constant threat to an [...]
Sperm Motility
Sperm cells are equipped with a limited repertoire of behaviors that exclusively subserve their purpose to fertilize eggs (mature ova). When produced in the testis, sperm are immotile; they acquire the ability to swim as they transit through the epididymal tract of mammals or after ejaculation from invertebrates. But motility [...]
Spliceosomal Splicing Cycle
During the final step in formation of a mature, functional mRNA, the introns are removed and exons are spliced together. The discovery that introns are removed during splicing came from electron microscopy of RNA-DNA hybrids between adenovirus DNA and the mRNA encoding hexon, a major virion capsid protein. For short [...]
SREBP Proteolysis
Cellular Lipid homeostasis in mammalian cells is regulated through the end-product feedback regulation of Lipid synthesis by a family of membrane-bound transcription factors designated SREBPs (Sterol Regulatory Element–Binding Proteins) that control the flux of cellular metabolites into the major Lipid pathways. The mammalian cell continuously adjusts its Sterol content by [...]
STAT3 Mediated Tumor Escape
Immune cells in the tumour microenvironment not only fail to mount an effective anti-tumour immune response, but also interact intimately with the transformed cells to promote oncogenesis actively. STAT (Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription) proteins acts as a  mediators of cytokine receptor signaling . This  proteins plays a role in transmitting [...]
STAT3 Pathway
STATs (Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription) are a family of cytoplasmic proteins with SH2 (Src Homology-2) domains that act as signal messengers and transcription factors and participate in normal cellular responses to Cytokines and GFs (Growth Factors). STATs are activated via the tyrosine phosphorylation cascade after ligand binding and [...]
Ste20-PAK Signaling in Budding Yeast
Protein kinases of the PAK (p21-Activated Kinase) family are found in all eukaryotic species. This family is defined by sequence similarity in the kinase domains and by the occurrence of a domain that can be bound by CDC42, a p21 GTPase of the Ras superfamily. Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells contain three [...]
Structure of Plasmodium Merozoite
The Plasmodium Merozoite is an ovoid cell and measures approximately 1.5 micron in length and 1 micron in width. The apical end of the Merozoite is a truncated cone-shaped projection demarcated by the polar rings. At the anterior end of the Merozoite are present three types of membrane-bound organelles, namely, [...]
Structure of Plasmodium Trophozoite
In the life cycle of Plasmodium spp, Erythrocytic stage is very important involving four stages viz. Merozoite stage, ring stage, Trophozoite stage and Schizont stage. On being released from the hepatocytes, the Merozoites enter the bloodstream prior to infecting red blood cells. They use the Apicomplexan invasion organelles to recognize [...]
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