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Signaling Pathways      Metabolic Pathways     All Pathways
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SUMO Pathway
Covalent modifications of proteins, such as phosphorylation, acetylation and ubiquitylation, play an important role in most cellular processes because they can cause rapid changes in the activities of pre-existing proteins. This type of mechanism for regulating protein function is especially crucial in signal transduction pathways and in cell cycle. The [...]
Sweet Taste Signaling
The sense of taste plays a critical role in the life and nutritional status of humans and other organisms. Human taste perception may be categorized according to four well known and widely accepted descriptors, sweet, bitter, salty, and sour (corresponding to particular taste qualities or modalities), and two more controversial [...]
T-Cell Receptor and CD3 Complex
Lymphocytes are one of the five kinds of white blood cells or leukocytes, circulating in the blood. Although mature lymphocytes all look pretty much alike, they are extraordinarily diverse in their functions. The most abundant lymphocytes are: B-Lymphocytes (often simply called B-Cells) and T-Lymphocytes (likewise called T-Cells). T-Cells are produced [...]
TCR Signaling
T-Cells are a subset of lymphocytes that play a large role in the immune response. The TCR (T-Cell Receptor) is a complex of integral membrane proteins that participates in the activation of T-Cells in response to the presentation of antigen. Stimulation of TCR is triggered by MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) [...]
Tec Kinases Signaling
Nonreceptor PTKs (Protein Tyrosine Kinases) are essential for the development and activation of B-Cells and T-Cells (Ref.1). The Tec kinases represent the second largest family of mammalian non-RTKs (Receptor Tyrosine Kinases), which are activated in blood cells by stimulation of Cytokine Receptors, Lymphocyte surface antigens, GPCR (G-Protein Coupled Receptors), receptor type PTKs, or Integrins (Ref.2). Tec family members include Tec, BTK (Bruton’s Tyrosine Kinase), ITK (IL-2-Inducible T-cell
Telomerase Components in Cell Signaling
The extended growth potential of cancer cells is critically dependent upon the maintenance of functional telomeres, which are specialized chromosomal DNA-protein structures in the terminal regions of eukaryotic chromosomes (Ref.1). In order to divide, a normal cell has to replicate the entire DNA in its chromosomes. But normal cells have [...]
Telomere Extension by Telomerase
Unlimited replicative potential and widespread genomic disarray are among the most common characteristics exhibited by human cancer cells. Although several distinct molecular pathways regulate specific aspects of each of these phenotypes, specialized chromosomal terminal structures, termed telomeres act as essential regulators of both cell life span and chromosomal integrity (Ref.1). [...]
Telomere Extension in Yeast
Telomeres are specialized nucleoprotein structures found at the ends of linear eukaryotic chromosomes. Telomeres confer stability to chromosomes by preventing nucleolytic degradation and recombination. They also function in chromosomal localization, nuclear architecture, and repression of nearby genes. The telomeric DNA of most organisms consists of simple tandem repeats that are [...]
TGF-Beta Pathway
TGFB (Transforming growth factor-beta) is a multifunctional cytokine that regulates a wide variety of cellular functions, including cell growth, cellular differentiation, apoptosis, and wound healing. TGF-b signals are transmitted through two transmembrane serine/threonine kinase receptors TGFBR1 and TGFBR2 [Ref.1]. Initiation of the TGFB signaling cascade occurs upon ligand binding to [...]
TH17 Pathway
T cells acts as a workhorse for the adaptive immune system, with the job of orchestrating defences against microbial invasion. A subcategory of T cells, T helper cells, defends against microbes, also causes trouble by inducing inflammation in immune-mediated diseases. T helper cells become further specialized, or differentiated, and a [...]
Thalassemia is one of the most deadly inherited blood disorders, characterized by abnormal production of hemoglobin and excessive destruction of red blood cells. It is a single-gene disorder that is passed from parents to child by autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance. Progressive iron overload and Anemia are the most salient [...]
THC Differentiation Pathway
During infection, T and B-lymphocytes recognize microbes by means of antigen-specific cell-surface receptors. The humoral immune response is mediated by B cells and the antibodies they produce. T-lymphocyte response to antigenic challenges is called the cellular immune response. T-lymphocytes can be categorized and functionally divided into CD4+ (T-helper lymphocytes) cells [...]
Thrombin Signaling
Thrombin is a multifunctional serine protease involved in a number of pathophysiological processes that include blood clotting, inflammation, repair processes and tumor metastasis. In brain, thrombin regulates the viability of neurons and astrocytes by increasing survival under conditions of hypoglycemia and oxidative stress and inducing apoptosis under other conditions. Thrombin [...]
Thrombopoietin Pathway
Throughout adult life, all blood cells are constantly regenerated from a small pool of hematopoietic stem cells. A single purified stem cell injected into a lethally irradiated host is sufficient to reconstitute all lineages, demonstrating pluripotency and an enormous regenerative potential. Genes encoding secreted growth factors, signal transduction molecules and [...]
TLR-TRIF Pathway
TLRs (Toll-like receptors) are key molecules of the innate immune system that recognize molecular patterns on microorganisms and rapidly alert the host to the presence of potentially dangerous organisms. When TLRs on the surface of an immune cell are engaged, two major events are triggered downstream. First, all TLRs trigger [...]
TNF Signaling
TNF (Tumor Necrosis Factor) is a multifunctional proinflammatory cytokine, with effects on lipid metabolism, coagulation, insulin resistance, and endothelial function. TNF has been considered as an anti-cancer agent since its discovery two decades ago. Members of the TNFR (TNF Receptor) superfamily can send both survival and death signals to cells [...]
TNF Superfamily Pathway
Members of the TNF (Tumor necrosis factor) receptor superfamily play pivotal roles in numerous biological events in metazoan organisms. Ligand-mediated trimerization by corresponding homo- or hetero-trimeric ligands, the TNF family proteins, causes recruitment of several intracellular adaptors, which activate multiple signal transduction pathways. 29 TNF receptor family members have been [...]
TNF-Induced Apoptosis Implicating Sphingolipids
Various lipid molecules serve as second messengers for transducing signals from the cell surface to the cell interior and trigger specific cellular responses. Recently, several sphingolipids have emerged as cellular constituents that are able to promote, mediate or counterbalance apoptosis. Sphingolipids are a family of membrane lipids whose structure is [...]
TNFR1 Pathway
The Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor (TNFR) super family represents a growing family, with over 20 members having been identified so far in mammalian cells. TNF-Alpha (Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha), a potent cytokine, elicits a broad spectrum of biologic responses, which are mediated by binding to a cell surface receptor. TNF has [...]
TNFR2 Pathway
TNF (Tumor Necrosis Factor) family members play important roles in various physiological and pathological processes, including cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, modulation of immune responses and induction of inflammation. TNF acts through two receptors, TNFR1 and TNFR2 (Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptors). TNFR1 is expressed by all human tissues and is the [...]
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