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Signaling Pathways      Metabolic Pathways     All Pathways
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Toll-Like Receptors
TLRs (Toll-like receptors) are transmembrane proteins expressed by cells of the innate immune system, which recognize invading microbes and activate signaling pathways that launch immune and inflammatory responses to destroy the invaders. Toll receptors were first identified in Drosophila. In mammals, the TLR family includes eleven proteins (TLR1−TLR11). Recently, two [...]
 
Tooth Development and Decay
Teeth develop as ectodermal appendages in vertebrate embryos, and their early development resembles morphologically as well as molecularly other organs such as Hairs and Glands. Interactions between the Ectoderm and underlying Mesenchyme constitute a central mechanism regulating the morphogenesis of all these organs. Central features of Tooth morphogenesis are the [...]
 
TOR Complexes in Yeast
TOR (Target of Rapamycin) is a PIKK (Phosphatidylinositol Kinase-related protein Kinase) that controls cell growth and proliferation. In all eukaryotic cells expressing the protein, TOR function is controlled by nutrient availability, which ensures that protein synthesis is repressed when the supply of precursor amino acids is insufficient. In mammalian cells, [...]
 
TRAF Pathway
The structural and metabolic integrity of bone is maintained through the dynamic process of bone remodeling that results from the coordinate action of bone resorption and the formation of new bone by osteoblasts. Regulation of bone remodeling occurs through multiple mechanisms that ultimately converge on the interaction of osteoclasts or [...]
 
TRAIL Pathway
TRAIL (TNF-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand) is a protein consisting of 281 amino acids. It is also called Apo2L. Five proteins, TRAILR1 (DR4), TRAILR2 (DR5/ TRICK2 or KILLER), TRAILR3 (DcR1/ TRID or LIT), TRAILR4 (DcR2 or TRUNDD), and Opg (Osteoprotegerin), have been identified as TRAIL receptors (Ref.1). Both TRAILR1 and TRAILR2 contain [...]
 
Transcription of mRNA
Transcription is the process through which a DNA sequence is enzymatically copied by an RNA polymerase to produce a complementary RNA. Transcription can also be defined as a process that transcribes genetic information from DNA into RNA. In eukaryotes, it takes place in the nucleus, mitochondria and chloroplast. Transcription is [...]
 
Transcription of rRNA
rRNA (Ribosomal RNA) is the central component of the Ribosome, the protein manufacturing machinery of all living cells. The rRNA is synthesized in the nucleolus. These machines then self-assemble into the two complex folded structures (the large 60S and the small 40S subunits) in the presence of 70 – 80 [...]
 
Transcription of tRNA
tRNA (Transfer RNA) is a small RNA (Ribonucleic Acid) chain (74-93 nucleotides) that transfers a specific amino acid to a growing polypeptide chain at the ribosomal site of protein synthesis during translation. It has a site for amino acid attachment and a three-base region called the anticodon that recognizes the [...]
 
Transcriptional Regulatory Network in Embryonic Stem Cell
Stem Cells are undifferentiated cells that can give rise to several lineages of differentiated cell types. They are the founder cells for every organ, tissue and cell in the body. Stem cells are characterized by the ability to self-renew and maintain Pluripotency. These features allow Stem Cells to fulfill their [...]
 
Transendothelial Migration of Leukocytes
The migratory properties of leukocytes or WBCs (White Blood Cells) are indispensable to drive immune responses throughout the body. Leukocytes fall under two categories according to their morphology that includes Agranulocytes (Lymphocytes and Monocytes) and Granulocytes (Neutrophils, Basophils and Eosinophils). To ensure migration to the proper locations, the trafficking of [...]
 
Tregs in Tumor Escape Checkpoints
Specific T cell populations have suppressive/regulatory cells known as Regulatory T-cell or Tregs (Previously known as suppressor T-cell). Among them CD4+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) basically has two different subsets Tr1 and Th3 cells which are differentiated by their distinct suppressive mechanisms. The thymus-derived Tregs or natural Tregs (nTregs) express [...]
 
TREM1 Pathway
TREMs (Triggering Receptor Expressed on Myeloid Cells) are a family of recently discovered receptors of the immunoglobulin superfamily, expressed on various cells of the myeloid lineage, which play important roles in innate immune responses, such as to activate inflammatory responses and to contribute to septic shock in response to microbial-mediated [...]
 
TRKA Signaling
A recurring theme in neurobiology is the role of a set of molecules that support proliferation, differentiation and survival of neurons. These molecules, collectively referred to as neurotrophins, are essential for the development and maintenance of the vertebrate nervous system, mediating their signal into the cell by specific interaction with [...]
 
Tumor Escape Mechanisms
Tumour cells characteristically provides their own growth signals, and ignore growth-inhibitory signals, avoid cell death, replicate without limits, sustain angiogenesis, and invade tissues through basement membranes and capillary walls. Where as cancer immunosurveillance predicts that the immune system can recognize precursors of cancer and, in most cases, destroy these precursors [...]
 
Tumoricidal Effects of Hepatic NK Cells
The liver is a major site for the formation and metastasis of Tumors. Malignant Liver Tumors fall into two types: Primary and Metastatic. While Primary Liver tumors such as HCC (Hepatocellular Carcinoma) originate in the liver itself, Metastatic or Secondary Liver Tumors commpnly known as “Liver Metastases” are cancerous tumors [...]
 
TWEAK Pathway Recently Updated
TWEAK is a cell surface-associated type II transmembrane protein (249-amino acid) belonging to the TNF (Tumor Necrosis Factor) superfamily. The protein was named TWEAK for its relatedness to TNF and its weak apoptotic ability. The predicted cytoplasmic, transmembrane and extracellular domains of TWEAK consist of amino acids 1-18, 19-42, and [...]
 
UPA-Upar Pathway
Proteases are expressed by normal cells in tissue remodeling events and also during pathological events such as tumor invasion and metastasis. Some of the proteases including serine proteinases and MMPs (Metalloproteinases) have been implicated in remodeling of the ECM (Extracellular Matrix) in lung injury and lung neoplasia. These enzymes influence [...]
 
UVA-Induced MAPK Signaling
Solar UV (Ultraviolet) irradiation is the most important environmental carcinogen leading to the development of skin cancers. UV irradiation can cause DNA and protein damage, which in part accounts to oxidative damage. The carcinogenesis of UV is caused by deficit in pyrimidine dimers repair pathway or UV induced MAPK pathway [...]
 
UVB-Induced MAPK Signaling
UV (Ultraviolet) radiation is a naturally occurring genotoxic agent and is the primary environmental carcinogen responsible for the development of most skin Cancers. The UV portion of solar radiation is composed of UVC (200–280 nm), UVB (280–315 nm), and UVA (315–400 nm). Much of the important damage produced by solar [...]
 
UVC-Induced MAPK Signaling
UV (Ultraviolet) irradiation is a component of sunlight, which has higher energy than visible light. UV radiation (100 and 400 nm) is divided into at least three different categories based on wavelength: UVA (Ultraviolet-A) , UVB (Ultraviolet-B) and UVC (Ultraviolet-C).  UVC wavelengths (100-280 nm) are very strongly affected by ozone [...]
 
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