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TOB in Osteoblast Signaling
TOB (Transducer of ErbB2), a member of the TOB and BTG (B-cell Translocation Gene) anti-proliferative protein family, negatively regulates the proliferation of Osteoblasts (Ref.1). Bone is formed and resorbed continuously, starting in the embryo and continuing throughout adult life. This process occurring in adult bone is called bone remodeling. Bone [...]
TOB in T-Cell Signaling
Efficient ligation of the TCR (T-Cell Receptor) by high-density Antigen can generate a productive T-Cell response and result in cytokine secretion and clonal expansion that is crucial for an optimal immune response. TCR stimulation may provoke different cell responses (proliferation, anergy to subsequent stimuli, cell death) in mature circulating T-Cells [...]
Toll Comparative Pathway
During inflammation, which results from tissue injury, infection, or autoimmune diseases, such as RA (Rheumatoid Arthritis), cells release inflammatory mediators that give rise to the symptoms of inflammation. These symptoms include vascular changes, such as increased blood flow, and extravasations and activation of leukocytes. Inflammation can be triggered when proteins [...]
Toll-Like Receptors
TLRs (Toll-like receptors) are transmembrane proteins expressed by cells of the innate immune system, which recognize invading microbes and activate signaling pathways that launch immune and inflammatory responses to destroy the invaders. Toll receptors were first identified in Drosophila. In mammals, the TLR family includes eleven proteins (TLR1−TLR11). Recently, two [...]
Tooth Development and Decay
Teeth develop as ectodermal appendages in vertebrate embryos, and their early development resembles morphologically as well as molecularly other organs such as Hairs and Glands. Interactions between the Ectoderm and underlying Mesenchyme constitute a central mechanism regulating the morphogenesis of all these organs. Central features of Tooth morphogenesis are the [...]
TOR Complexes in Yeast
TOR (Target of Rapamycin) is a PIKK (Phosphatidylinositol Kinase-related protein Kinase) that controls cell growth and proliferation. In all eukaryotic cells expressing the protein, TOR function is controlled by nutrient availability, which ensures that protein synthesis is repressed when the supply of precursor amino acids is insufficient. In mammalian cells, [...]
TRAF Pathway
The structural and metabolic integrity of bone is maintained through the dynamic process of bone remodeling that results from the coordinate action of bone resorption and the formation of new bone by osteoblasts. Regulation of bone remodeling occurs through multiple mechanisms that ultimately converge on the interaction of osteoclasts or [...]
TRAIL Pathway
TRAIL (TNF-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand) is a protein consisting of 281 amino acids. It is also called Apo2L. Five proteins, TRAILR1 (DR4), TRAILR2 (DR5/ TRICK2 or KILLER), TRAILR3 (DcR1/ TRID or LIT), TRAILR4 (DcR2 or TRUNDD), and Opg (Osteoprotegerin), have been identified as TRAIL receptors (Ref.1). Both TRAILR1 and TRAILR2 contain [...]
Transcription of mRNA Recently Updated
Transcription is the process through which a DNA sequence is enzymatically copied by an RNA polymerase to produce a complementary RNA. Transcription can also be defined as a process that transcribes genetic information from DNA into RNA. In eukaryotes, it takes place in the nucleus, mitochondria and chloroplast. Transcription is [...]
Transcription of rRNA
rRNA (Ribosomal RNA) is the central component of the Ribosome, the protein manufacturing machinery of all living cells. The rRNA is synthesized in the nucleolus. These machines then self-assemble into the two complex folded structures (the large 60S and the small 40S subunits) in the presence of 70 – 80 [...]
Transcription of tRNA
tRNA (Transfer RNA) is a small RNA (Ribonucleic Acid) chain (74-93 nucleotides) that transfers a specific amino acid to a growing polypeptide chain at the ribosomal site of protein synthesis during translation. It has a site for amino acid attachment and a three-base region called the anticodon that recognizes the [...]
Transcriptional Regulatory Network in Embryonic Stem Cell
Stem Cells are undifferentiated cells that can give rise to several lineages of differentiated cell types. They are the founder cells for every organ, tissue and cell in the body. Stem cells are characterized by the ability to self-renew and maintain Pluripotency. These features allow Stem Cells to fulfill their [...]
Transendothelial Migration of Leukocytes
The migratory properties of leukocytes or WBCs (White Blood Cells) are indispensable to drive immune responses throughout the body. Leukocytes fall under two categories according to their morphology that includes Agranulocytes (Lymphocytes and Monocytes) and Granulocytes (Neutrophils, Basophils and Eosinophils). To ensure migration to the proper locations, the trafficking of [...]
Tregs in Tumor Escape Checkpoints
Specific T cell populations have suppressive/regulatory cells known as Regulatory T-cell or Tregs (Previously known as suppressor T-cell). Among them CD4+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) basically has two different subsets Tr1 and Th3 cells which are differentiated by their distinct suppressive mechanisms. The thymus-derived Tregs or natural Tregs (nTregs) express [...]
TREM1 Pathway
TREMs (Triggering Receptor Expressed on Myeloid Cells) are a family of recently discovered receptors of the immunoglobulin superfamily, expressed on various cells of the myeloid lineage, which play important roles in innate immune responses, such as to activate inflammatory responses and to contribute to septic shock in response to microbial-mediated [...]
TRKA Signaling
A recurring theme in neurobiology is the role of a set of molecules that support proliferation, differentiation and survival of neurons. These molecules, collectively referred to as neurotrophins, are essential for the development and maintenance of the vertebrate nervous system, mediating their signal into the cell by specific interaction with [...]
Tumor Escape Mechanisms
Tumour cells characteristically provides their own growth signals, and ignore growth-inhibitory signals, avoid cell death, replicate without limits, sustain angiogenesis, and invade tissues through basement membranes and capillary walls. Where as cancer immunosurveillance predicts that the immune system can recognize precursors of cancer and, in most cases, destroy these precursors [...]
Tumoricidal Effects of Hepatic NK Cells
The liver is a major site for the formation and metastasis of Tumors. Malignant Liver Tumors fall into two types: Primary and Metastatic. While Primary Liver tumors such as HCC (Hepatocellular Carcinoma) originate in the liver itself, Metastatic or Secondary Liver Tumors commpnly known as “Liver Metastases” are cancerous tumors [...]
TWEAK Pathway
Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK) is a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily (TNFSF) that is induced in a variety of cell types in situations of tissue injury. It is expressed in various tissues including the intestine, pancreas, lung, brain, skeletal muscle, heart and vasculature. The 249 amino acid-comprising membrane-bound form of TWEAK consists extracellularly of the characteristic C-terminally located TNF homology domain (THD),
Type-1 Diabetes Mellitus
Type 1 diabetes, formerly termed IDDM (Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus), is a chronic organ-specific autoimmune disorder caused by proinflammatory autoreactive CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, which mediate progressive and selective damage of insulin producing pancreatic beta-cells.
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