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Signaling Pathways      Metabolic Pathways     All Pathways
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Assembly of RNA Polymerase-I Initiation Complex
The nuclei of all eukaryotic cells contain three different RNA Polymerases, designated I, II and III. Like the DNA Polymerase that catalyzes DNA replication, RNA Polymerases catalyze the formation of the phosphodiester bonds that link the nucleotides together to form a linear chain. The RNA Polymerase moves stepwise along the [...]
 
Assembly of RNA Polymerase-II Initiation Complex
The nuclei of all eukaryotic cells contain three different RNA Polymerases, designated I, II and III. Like the DNA Polymerase that catalyzes DNA replication, RNA Polymerases catalyze the formation of the phosphodiester bonds that link the nucleotides together to form a linear chain. The RNA Polymerase moves stepwise along the [...]
 
Assembly of RNA Polymerase-III Initiation Complex
The nuclei of all eukaryotic cells contain three different RNA Polymerases, designated I, II and III. Like the DNA Polymerase that catalyzes DNA replication, RNA Polymerases catalyze the formation of the phosphodiester bonds that link the nucleotides together to form a linear chain. The RNA Polymerase moves stepwise along the [...]
 
Atherosclerosis-Disease Progression
Atherosclerosis defines a disease in which the arterial wall becomes thickened and loses elasticity. It is a degenerative process in which fatty (lipid) material is deposited as Plaques irregularly and eccentrically in the walls of the Coronary Arteries and other Arteries as well. These Plaques are inflamed and encased in [...]
 
ATM Pathway Recently Updated
ATM (Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated Protein) belongs to a family of Kinases that have sequence homology to PI3K (Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase). ATM is a key regulator of multiple signaling cascades which respond to DNA strand breaks induced by damaging agents IR (Ionizing Radiation), radiometric agents or by normal processes. These responses involve the activation of cell [...]
 
Autoimmune Mechanism Causing Vitiligo
Vitiligo is an Acquired Skin Depigmenting disorder characterized by the loss of Melanocytes, Exocrine cells, from basal layer of the Epidermal and the matrix portion of the hair bulb. Vitiligo is defined clinically by expanding areas of well-circumscribed, milky white, cutaneous macules on the skin surface due to the destruction [...]
 
B-Cell Development Recently Updated
B-lymphocytes are white blood cells that secrete antibodies. B-lymphocytes are formed by bone marrow stem cells and migrate into the circulation and lymphoid tissue. If bacteria or viruses invade the body, they give off a specific chemical, an antigen. This antigen binds to the B-Cells and stimulate the B-Cells to [...]
 
B-Cell Receptor Complex
Lymphocytes are one of the five kinds of white blood cells or leukocytes, circulating in the blood. Although mature lymphocytes all look pretty much alike, they are extraordinarily diverse in their functions. The most abundant lymphocytes are: B-Lymphocytes (often simply called B-Cells) and T-Lymphocytes (likewise called T-Cells) (Ref.1). B-Cells are [...]
 
Bacterial Meningitis
Meningitis is an infection and inflammation of the meninges that affects the pia, the arachnoid and the subarachnoid space. It can be caused by growth of bacteria, virus, fungi, or parasites within the subarachnoid space or by the growth of bacteria or viruses within the meningeal or ependymal cells. Bacterial [...]
 
BAD Phosphorylation
The ability of multicellular organisms to maintain cellular homeostasis is critically dependent on a balance between cell survival and cell death (apoptosis). The responsiveness of individual cells to death signals varies greatly depending on the presence of continuous survival cues from the extracellular environment. The perturbation of normal cell survival [...]
 
BAFF in B-Cell Signaling Recently Updated
Members of the TNF (Tumor Necrosis Factor) ligand family play important roles in various physiological and pathological processes, including cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, modulation of immune response, and induction of inflammation. The BAFF (B-Cell Activating Factor) [also known as BLYS (B-Lymphocyte Stimulator), TALL1 (TNF- and ApoL-Related Leukocyte Expressed Ligand-1) or THANK (TNF Homolog that Activates Apoptosis, NF-KappaB, and JNK)] is a TNF-related ligand that promotes B-Cell survival.
 
Base Excision Repair Pathway
The survival of organism depends on the accurate transmission of genetic information from one cell to its daughters. Such faithful transmission requires not only extreme accuracy in replication of DNA and precision in chromosome distribution, but also the ability to survive spontaneous and induced DNA damage while minimizing the number [...]
 
BCR Pathway
The BCR (B-Cell antigen Receptor) plays a critical role in development, survival, and activation of B cells. The BCR is composed of mIg molecules (Membrane Immunoglobulin) and associated Ig-Alpha/Ig-Beta heterodimer. The mIg subunits bind antigen and cause receptor aggregation, while the Alpha/Beta subunits transduce signals to the cell interior. Engagement of receptor activates three types of intracellular protein tyrosine kinases, Syk (Spleen Tyrosine Kinase),
 
BDNF Pathway
Neurotrophins are required for the development and maintenance of the nervous system. The neurotrophin family consists of NGF (Nerve Growth Factor), BDNF (Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor), NT3 (Neurotrophin-3), and NT4 (Neurotrophin-4). The functions of the neurotrophins are mediated by interacting with the TRK (Tyrosine Kinase) receptors: NGF with TRKA, BDNF and NT4 with TRKB, and NT3 with TRKC. Consequently, TRK receptor tyrosine kinases are activated, triggering multiple
 
Beta-Adrenergic Signaling
The rate and strength of beating of the heart is under the reciprocal control of the Adrenergic (sympathetic) and Cholinergic (parasympathetic) systems. Increased strength (inotropy) in cardiac beating in response to hormones like the blood-borne Epinephrine or to neurally delivered Norepinephrine is mediated by ADR-Beta (Beta-Adrenergic Receptors) (Ref.1), which are members of [...]
 
Bitter Taste Signaling
The sense of taste plays a critical role in the life and nutritional status of humans and other organisms. Human taste perception may be categorized according to four well known and widely accepted descriptors, sweet, bitter, salty, and sour (corresponding to particular taste qualities or modalities), and two more controversial [...]
 
Blistering Disease
A blister (bulla) is a bubble of fluid that forms beneath a thin layer of dead skin. The fluid is a mixture of water and proteins that oozes from injured tissue. Blisters most commonly form in response to a specific injury, such as a burn or irritation, and usually involve [...]
 
Blood Coagulation Cascade
The circulatory system must be self-sealing; otherwise continued blood loss from even the smallest injury would be life threatening. Normally, all but the most catastrophic bleeding is rapidly stopped, by a process known as Coagulation, through several sequential processes. Coagulation involves the formation of a blood clot (thrombus) that prevents [...]
 
BMP Pathway
The fate of neural precursors in the developing brain is believed to be determined by intrinsic cellular programs and by external cues, including the cytokines. BMPs (Bone Morphogenetic Proteins) are a large subclass (more than 20 members) of the TGF-Beta (Transforming Growth Factor-Beta) super family that is active in many [...]
 
Brassinosteroid Signaling in Arabidopsis
Plant growth and development are ruled by environmental and endogenous signals, which are integrated through genetic networks that finally act on the division, expansion, and differentiation of cells to generate specific developmental patterns. BRs (Brassinosteroids) are steroid hormones belonging to the group of endogenous signals required for plant growth and [...]
 
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