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Signaling Pathways      Metabolic Pathways     All Pathways
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Assembly of RNA Polymerase-I Initiation Complex
The nuclei of all eukaryotic cells contain three different RNA Polymerases, designated I, II and III. Like the DNA Polymerase that catalyzes DNA replication, RNA Polymerases catalyze the formation of the phosphodiester bonds that link the nucleotides together to form a linear chain. The RNA Polymerase moves stepwise along the [...]
 
Assembly of RNA Polymerase-II Initiation Complex
The nuclei of all eukaryotic cells contain three different RNA Polymerases, designated I, II and III. Like the DNA Polymerase that catalyzes DNA replication, RNA Polymerases catalyze the formation of the phosphodiester bonds that link the nucleotides together to form a linear chain. The RNA Polymerase moves stepwise along the [...]
 
Assembly of RNA Polymerase-III Initiation Complex
The nuclei of all eukaryotic cells contain three different RNA Polymerases, designated I, II and III. Like the DNA Polymerase that catalyzes DNA replication, RNA Polymerases catalyze the formation of the phosphodiester bonds that link the nucleotides together to form a linear chain. The RNA Polymerase moves stepwise along the [...]
 
Atherosclerosis-Disease Progression
Atherosclerosis is a chronic disease, the prevalence of which has increased steadily as the population ages. Vascular injury is believed to be critical initiating event in pathogenesis of spontaneous atherosclerosis. Economic development and urbanization have promoted habits of diet rich in saturated fat and diminished physical activity, which favors atherosclerosis. Traditionally two types of atherosclerosis are described, spontaneous and accelerated. Accelerated atherosclerosis mainly occurs in patients after heart transplant,
 
ATM Pathway
ATM (Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated Protein) belongs to a family of Kinases that have sequence homology to PI3K (Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase). ATM is a key regulator of multiple signaling cascades which respond to DNA strand breaks induced by damaging agents IR (Ionizing Radiation), radiometric agents or by normal processes. These responses involve the activation of cell [...]
 
Autoimmune Mechanism Causing Vitiligo
Vitiligo is an Acquired Skin Depigmenting disorder characterized by the loss of Melanocytes, Exocrine cells, from basal layer of the Epidermal and the matrix portion of the hair bulb. Vitiligo is defined clinically by expanding areas of well-circumscribed, milky white, cutaneous macules on the skin surface due to the destruction [...]
 
Autophagy
Autophagy is a process of self-degradation of cellular components in which double-membrane autophagosomes sequester organelles or portions of cytosol and fuse with lysosomes or vacuoles for breakdown by resident hydrolases.
 
B-Cell Development
B lymphoid cells are essential for the humoral immune response by producing a diverse range of antigen-specific antibodies. Antibody-mediated immunity is provided by two distinctive B cell lineages that diverge early in life. The better-known conventional, or B2, B cells provide adaptive immunity by producing high-affinity pathogen-specific antibodies, typically in [...]
 
B-Cell Receptor Complex
ymphocytes are one of the five kinds of white blood cells or leukocytes, circulating in the blood. Although mature lymphocytes all look pretty much alike, they are extraordinarily diverse in their functions. The most abundant lymphocytes are: B-Lymphocytes (often simply called B-Cells) and T-Lymphocytes (likewise called T-Cells) [Ref.1]. B-Cells are not only produced in the bone marrow but also mature there. Each B-Cell is specific for a particular antigen.
 
Bacterial Meningitis
Meningitis is an infection and inflammation of the meninges that affects the pia, the arachnoid and the subarachnoid space. It can be caused by growth of bacteria, virus, fungi, or parasites within the subarachnoid space or by the growth of bacteria or viruses within the meningeal or ependymal cells. Bacterial [...]
 
BAD Phosphorylation
The ability of multicellular organisms to maintain cellular homeostasis is critically dependent on a balance between cell survival and cell death (apoptosis). The responsiveness of individual cells to death signals varies greatly depending on the presence of continuous survival cues from the extracellular environment. The perturbation of normal cell survival [...]
 
BAFF in B-Cell Signaling
BAFF (B-cell activating factor), is a member of the TNF (tumor necrosis factor) ligand family that plays important roles in B-cell homeostasis, tolerance, and malignancy [Ref.1). It is also known as BLyS (B lymphocyte stimulator) protein, TALL-1 (TNF and apoptosis ligand-related leukocyte-expressed ligand-1), zTNF4, CD257, TNFSF13B, TNFS20 (TNF superfamily member) [...]
 
Base Excision Repair Pathway
The survival of organism depends on the accurate transmission of genetic information from one cell to its daughters. Such faithful transmission requires not only extreme accuracy in replication of DNA and precision in chromosome distribution, but also the ability to survive spontaneous and induced DNA damage while minimizing the number [...]
 
BCR Pathway
The BCR (B-Cell antigen Receptor) plays a critical role in development, survival, and activation of B cells. The BCR is composed of mIg molecules (Membrane Immunoglobulin) and associated Ig-Alpha/Ig-Beta heterodimer.
 
BDNF Pathway
Neurotrophins are an important class of signaling molecules in the brain responsible for axon targeting, neuron growth, maturation of synapses during development, and synaptic plasticity. This family of molecules includes NGF (Nerve Growth Factor), BDNF (Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor), NT3 (Neurotrophin-3) and NT4 (Neurotrophin-4).
 
Beta-Adrenergic Signaling
The rate and strength of beating of the heart is under the reciprocal control of the Adrenergic (sympathetic) and Cholinergic (parasympathetic) systems. Increased strength (inotropy) in cardiac beating in response to hormones like the blood-borne Epinephrine or to neurally delivered Norepinephrine is mediated by ADR-Beta (Beta-Adrenergic Receptors) (Ref.1), which are members of [...]
 
Bitter Taste Signaling
The sense of taste plays a critical role in the life and nutritional status of humans and other organisms. Human taste perception may be categorized according to four well known and widely accepted descriptors, sweet, bitter, salty, and sour (corresponding to particular taste qualities or modalities), and two more controversial [...]
 
Blood Coagulation Cascade Recently Updated
Coagulation is a dynamic process which involves the regulated sequence of proteolytic activation of a series of zymogens to achieve appropriate and timely haemostasis in an injured vessel, in an environment that overwhelmingly favours an anticoagulant state.
 
BMP Pathway
BMPs (Bone morphogenetic proteins) are the members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily of secreted signaling molecules [Ref.1]. Transduction of BMP signal involves two types of transmembrane serine/threonine kinase receptors: type I and type II [Ref.1]. BMP2, BMP4, BMP5,BMP6, BMP7, BMP8, BMP9, BMP10, BMP12, BMP13 and BMP14 (Bone morphogenetic [...]
 
Brassinosteroid Signaling in Arabidopsis
Plant growth and development are ruled by environmental and endogenous signals, which are integrated through genetic networks that finally act on the division, expansion, and differentiation of cells to generate specific developmental patterns. BRs (Brassinosteroids) are steroid hormones belonging to the group of endogenous signals required for plant growth and [...]
 
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