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Signaling Pathways      Metabolic Pathways     All Pathways
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BRCA1 Pathway Recently Updated
The maintenance of genome integrity is essential to all life, but is particularly important to long-lived multicellular organisms, which are susceptible to cancer. DNA damage can take the form of base modifications, strand breaks, interstrand cross-links and other lesions. To deal with many types of damage, genomes have evolved multiple [...]
 
Breast Cancer Regulation by Stathmin1
Stmn1 (Stathmin-1) also referred to as Op18 (Oncoprotein-18) is a major regulator of microtubule dynamics. It is an evolutionarily well conserved 17 kDa cytoplasmic phosphoprotein that is highly expressed in a wide variety of cancers and its high abundance seems to be necessary for the maintenance of the transformed phenotypes. [...]
 
c-Myc and Apoptosis
Many proto-oncogenes participate in the regulation of apoptosis and closely intertwined with their actions are various growth factors and other genes that participate in the control of cellular growth. The proto-oncogene c-Myc encodes a transcription factor c-Myc that plays a critical role in multiple cellular processes including cell growth, proliferation, [...]
 
C. pneumoniae Infection in Atherosclerosis
Atherosclerosis, the pathological basis of CAD (Coronary Artery Disease) and Ischemic Stroke, is the commonest cause of death and disability in the western world. Atherosclerosis is a multifactorial, highly complex disease with numerous aetiologies simultaneously and sequentially collaborating in subtle ways to affect lesion development, progression and maturation to an [...]
 
Calcium Mediated T-Cell Apoptosis
Ca2+ (Calcium) plays a major role in life and death within T-Cells. Elevation of intracellular free Ca2+ is one of the key triggering signals for T-Cell activation by antigen. The binding of antigen, MHC Class-II (Major Histocompatibility Complex Class-II), to the TCR-CD3 (T-Cell Antigen Receptor)-CD3 (CD3 Antigen) triggers the recruitment [...]
 
Calcium-Calcineurin Signaling in S. cerevisiae
Cells of S. cerevisiae (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) produce one of two Mating pheromones, A-Factor and MF-Alpha (Mating Factor-Alpha). Mating pheromones bind to their receptors like Ste2 (Sterile/Alpha-Factor Pheromone Receptor) and Ste3 (Pheromone A-Factor Receptor), which leads to G-protein activation and induces the dissociation of the heterotrimeric G-protein subunits designated Gpa1 (Alpha-subunit), [...]
 
Calpain Protease Regulates Cellular Mechanics
Metastatic tumor progression, the process by which tumor cells disseminate from their primary site of development, is dependent upon the disruption of both cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesions. These in turn are governed by the multiprotein complexes of Cadherin-dependent adheren junctions and integrin-linked FA (Focal Adhesion) attachment sites. Disruption of these [...]
 
cAMP Chemotaxis Pathway in D. discoideum
D. discoideum (Dictyostelium discoideum) is an accessible organism for studies of signaling via Chemoattractant Receptors. Many features of the pathways in mammalian leukocytes are similar to those in the model organism D. discoideum. Analysis of signaling processes in this amoeba has led to discoveries that have subsequently been confirmed in [...]
 
cAMP Pathway
cAMP (Cyclic Adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate) is the first identified second messenger, which has a  fundamental role in the cellular response to many extracellular stimuli. The cAMP signaling pathway controls a diverse range of cellular processes. Indeed, not only did cAMP provide the paradigm for the second messenger concept, but also provided [...]
 
cAMP Signaling in C. neoformans
C. neoformans (Cryptococcus neoformans) is a Basidiomycetous fungus and a significant human pathogen with worldwide distribution. Its importance as an opportunistic pathogen has increased in the past two decades, largely as a result of AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome), cancer chemotherapy and immuno-suppression for organ transplants. Infections begin in the [...]
 
cAMP Signaling in M. grisea
cAMP (Cyclic Adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate) signaling regulates appressorium formation in the Rice Blast fungus M. grisea (Magnaporthe grisea). Both saprophytic and pathogenic growth of M. grisea is regulated by AC (Adenylate Cyclase)/Mac1 but different effectors of cAMP mediate downstream effects specific for either cell morphogenesis or pathogenesis. M. grisea causes a [...]
 
cAMP Signaling in N. crassa
The ascomycete N. crassa (Neurospora crassa) has defined asexual and sexual cycles. N. crassa is heterothallic and has two mating types, A and a. Under nutrient-rich conditions like Carbon, etc, N. crassa proliferates by the extension and branching of multinucleate vegetative hyphal cells to form a multicellular mycelium (Ref.1). In [...]
 
cAMP Signaling in S. cerevisiae
Yeast Filamentous Growth is regulated by two conserved signal transduction cascades; a G-protein regulated cAMP (Cyclic Adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate) signaling and a MAPK (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase) cascade. S. cerevisiae (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) expresses at least three members of the G protein-coupled family of Serpentine receptors among which the GPR1 (G-Protein Coupled Receptor-1) [...]
 
cAMP Signaling in S. pombe
The fission yeast S. pombe (Schizosaccharomyces pombe) is homothallic and has a defined sexual cycle involving mating between haploid cells of opposite mating types. In S. pombe, two signaling pathways coordinately regulate mating; the pheromone-activated MAPK (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase) signaling and nutrient-regulated, G-protein-cAMP (Cyclic Adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate)-PKA (cAMP-Dependent Protein Kinase) pathway [...]
 
cAMP Signaling in U. maydis
U. maydis (Ustilago maydis) is a ubiquitous pathogen of corn. Pathogenesis, dimorphic growth and sexual development are intricately interconnected in the corn Smut fungus U. maydis, and the perception of signals from the host plant plays an important role in these processes. The life cycle of U. maydis is characterized [...]
 
cAMP-cGMP Chemotactic Interaction in D. discoideum
During random locomotion, human neutrophils and D. discoideum (Dictyostelium discoideum) amoebae repeatedly extend and retract cytoplasmic processes. Some types of cell are highly motile. They can sense the presence of extracellular signals and guide their movement in the direction of the concentration gradient of these signals (Ref.1). This process, called [...]
 
cAMP-PKA Signaling in C. albicans
C. albicans (Candida albicans) is the most common human pathogen and causes a wide range of superficial mucosal diseases as well as life-threatening systemic yeast infections in immunocompromised patients. C. albicans is dimorphic and can either grow as budding yeast (blastospores) or switch to a filamentous form (either hyphae or [...]
 
Cancer Elimination
Cancer immunotherapy attempts to exploit the exquisite power and specificity of the immune system for the treatment of malignancy. Although cancer cells are less immunogenic than pathogens, the immune system is clearly capable of recognizing and eliminating tumour cells. However, tumors frequently interfere with the development and function of immune [...]
 
Cancer Recognition
Cancer immunotherapy attempts to exploit the exquisite power and specificity of the immune system for the treatment of malignancy. Although cancer cells are less immunogenic than pathogens, the immune system is clearly capable of recognizing and eliminating tumour cells. However, tumors frequently interfere with the development and function of immune [...]
 
Cancer-Immunoediting
As research into tumour immunology continues at an incredible pace, a considerable amount of work is aimed at exploring the mechanisms that underlie the immunological recognition and elimination of cancer and the downstream consequences of these processes. The capacity of the immune system for recognition is not limited solely to [...]
 
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