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Cardiomyocyte Differentiation through BMP Receptors
BMP (Bone Morphogenetic Protein) Receptors are essential, beyond the egg cylinder stage, for myocyte-dependent functions and signals in cardiac organogenesis. ALK3 (Activin Receptor-Like Kinase-3) is specifically required at mid-gestation for normal development of the trabeculae, compact myocardium, interventricular septum and endocardial cushion. The invariable defects in myocardium results from congenital [...]
Caspase Cascade
Caspases are a family of cysteine proteases that act in concert in a cascade triggered by apoptosis signaling. The culmination of this cascade is the cleavage of a number of proteins in the cell, followed by cell disassembly, cell death, and, ultimately, the phagocytosis and removal of the cell debris. [...]
CCKBR-Gastrin Stimulated Signaling
Multicellular organisms have developed highly efficient mechanisms of cell communication to integrate and coordinate the function and proliferation of individual cell types. Gastrointestinal peptides, including gastrin and CCK (Cholecystokinin), are a structurally diverse group of molecular messengers that function in a rich network of information exchange systems throughout the organism. [...]
CCR3 Pathway in Eosinophils
Human eosinophils are crucial effector cells implicated in a number of chronic inflammatory reactions, associated with bronchial asthma, allergic-inflammatory diseases, and parasitic infections (Ref.1). Bronchial asthma is a multifactorial disease characterized clinically by reversible bronchoconstriction leading to shortness of breath. The inflammatory response associated with asthma is characterized by the [...]
CCR5 Pathway in Macrophages
CCR5 (Chemokine-CC Motif-Receptor-5) is a member of the chemokine receptor subclass of the GPCR (G-Protein-Coupled Receptor) superfamily (Ref.1). It regulates leukocyte chemotaxis in inflammation and serves as a coreceptor for M-tropic (Macrophage tropic) HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) entry. It serves as a functional receptor for various inflammatory CC-chemokines, including MIP1Alpha (Macrophage Inflammatory Protein-1-Alpha), MIP1Beta (Macrophage Inflammatory Protein-1-Beta), and RANTES (Regulated on Activation Normal T-Expressed and Secreted protein) and is
CD27 Pathway
Members of the TNFR (Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor) superfamily are important for cell growth and survival. CD27 is a member of the TNFR superfamily, which includes TNFR types I and II, NGFR (Nerve Growth Factor Receptor), CD30 (associated with Hodgkin lymphoma), Fas/Apo1 (CD95), CD40, 4–1BB, and OX40. These receptors are [...]
CD28 Signaling in T-Helper Cell
CD28 (Antigen CD28) is characterized as a co-receptor for the TCR (T-Cell Receptor)/CD3 (CD3 Antigen) complex and is responsible for providing the co-stimulatory signal required for T-cell activation. CD28 also act as a receptor independent of the TCR and can initiate signaling events without concomitant TCR ligation. Priming of naive [...]
CD4 and CD8 T-Cell Lineage
Cell-fate specification is a key developmental event. The physiological function of a multicellular organism depends on the generation of the proper number and diversity of cell types. Signals from broadly expressed receptors that interact with co-evolved germ-line ligands control most differentiation decisions. But, adaptive immunity depends on the function of [...]
CD40 Signaling
CD40, a TNFR (Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor) family member, conveys signals regulating diverse cellular responses, ranging from proliferation and differentiation to growth suppression and cell death. First identified and functionally characterized on B-Cells, CD40 is expressed on a plethora of different cell types, including B-Cells, macrophages, dendritic cells, endothelial cells, [...]
CDC42 Pathway
Dynamic rearrangements of the cytoskeleton and cell adhesion are required for various cellular processes, such as shape changes, migration, and cytokinesis. These temporal and spatial reorganizations of cell structure and cell contacts can be stimulated by extracellular signals, including Growth Factors, Hormones, Integrins, G-proteins and other biologically active substances. To [...]
CDC42 Signaling in S. cerevisiae
The S. cerevisiae (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) CDC42 (Cell Division Control Protein-42), a member of the Rho/Rac subfamily of Ras-Like GTPases (GTP-Binding Proteins) and Ras superfamily of low molecular-weight GTPases, is essential for the control of cell polarity during the yeast cell cycle. CDC42 occurs in both soluble and particulate pools, and neither its abundance nor its distribution varied through the cell cycle. In S. cerevisiae, CDC42 is localized to the
CDC42-Actin Interactions in S. cerevisiae
Actin cortical patches are one of the major cytoskeletal structures in yeast and are essential for normal Endocytosis, Cell Growth and Morphology. Actin cortical patches are associated with invaginations of the plasma membrane and occur in polarized clusters at regions of cell growth in budding cells (Ref.1). Patch Assembly probably [...]
CDC42-Rho Interactions in S. cerevisiae
Cell Polarity is an essential characteristic of virtually every cell type. The budding yeast S. cerevisiae (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) has been critical for elucidation of proteins and mechanisms that underlie Cell Polarity development. Polarized Growth is mediated by a series of steps involving cortical landmarks, Rho GTPases and a polarized Actin [...]
CDK5 Pathway
CDKs (Cyclin-dependent kinases) are a group of serine/threonine protein kinases activated by binding to a regulatory subunit cyclin. These kinases are key regulators of the eukaryotic cell cycle progression. CDK5 (also known as Neuronal CDC2-Like Kinase, NCLK) is a unique member of the CDK family, that does not act as [...]
Cell Cycle Control by BTG Proteins
BTG2 (BTG Family Member-2) is endowed with antiproliferative activity. The expression of BTG2 in cycling cells induces accumulation of hypophosphorylated, growth-inhibitory forms of Rb (Retinoblastoma) and led to G1 arrest through impairment of DNA synthesis. Overexpression of CcnD1 (Cyclin-D1) counteracts G1 arrest. Rb is a nuclear phosphoprotein whose phosphorylation state [...]
Cell Cycle Control of Chromosomal Replication
The stable propagation of genetic information requires that the entire genome of an organism be faithfully replicated only once in each cell cycle. In eukaryotes, this replication is initiated at hundreds to thousands of replication origins distributed over the genome, each of which must be prohibited from re-initiating DNA replication [...]
Cell Integrity Pathway In Budding Yeast
Cellular integrity in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae depends on the proper composition of the cell wall and is controlled by the PKC1 (Protein Kinase-C-1)-mediated signal transduction through a MAPK (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases) cascade. This pathway is generally activated by events that lead to a change of the cell's size or [...]
Cellular Apoptosis Pathway
poptosis (also called programmed cell death) is a cellular death program that is inherent to all mammalian cells and plays an important role in the regulation of various physiological and pathological conditions. It serves to eliminate any unnecessary or unwanted cells and is a highly regulated process. There are a wide variety of conditions that will result in the apoptotic pathway becoming activated including DNA damage or uncontrolled proliferation.
Cellular Effects of Sildenafil
Erectile Dysfunction commonly known as ED or Impotence, affects a large segment of the male population that results in impaired relaxation of the smooth muscle cells in the corpus cavernosum and in the penile arteries. It is an age-related problem that is increasingly common in men aged over 40 years. [...]
Cellular Immune Responses to HBV
HBV (Hepatitis-B Virus) belongs to a family of closely related DNA viruses called the Hepadnaviruses. Included in this family are the WHV (Woodchuck Hepatitis Virus), the DHBV (Duck Hepatitis-B Virus) and several other avian and mammalian variants. All the hepadnaviruses have similar hepatotropism and life cycles in their hosts. Hepadnavirus [...]
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