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Cellular Transformation by HTLV1
HTLV1 (Human T-Lymphotropic Virus-1) is the etiological agent for ATL (Adult T-Cell Leukemia) as well as for TSP (Tropical Spastic Paraparesis) and HAM (HTLV1 Associate Myelopathy). Involvement of HTLV1 in ATL is dependent on the virally-encoded transcriptional activator Tax (Transactivator X). Its ability to modulate the expression and function of [...]
Ceramide Pathway
The SM (Sphingomyelin) pathway is an evolutionarily conserved stress response system linking diverse environmental stresses (Ultraviolet, Heat Shock, Oxidative Stress, and Ionizing Radiation) to cellular effector pathways. Ceramide is the second messenger in this system and can be generated either by hydrolysis of SM through SM-specific PLC (Phospholipase-C) termed SMases [...]
Checkpoint Comparative Pathways
Cells activate checkpoint pathways in response to DNA damage or a block to replication, that prevent cell cycle progression by inhibiting the basic cell cycle machinery until the problem is fixed. Various forms of DNA damage and various treatments that block replication trigger these checkpoints. Recent work on the mechanisms [...]
Checkpoint Signaling in Yeast
The maintenance of genomic integrity is important for the survival of eukaryotic cells. Checkpoint mechanisms prevent cell cycle transitions until previous events have been completed or damaged DNA has been repaired. Various forms of DNA damage and various treatments that block replication trigger these checkpoints. Checkpoint pathways and proteins are [...]
Chemokine Signaling
Chemokines are a group of small, secreted molecules that signal through G protein-coupled receptors to promote cell survival and proliferation and to provide directional guidance to migrating cells. Initially chemokines were divided into groups based on having chemotactic or homeostatic function, but several dual-function chemokines have since been described.
CHKs in Checkpoint Regulation
In the presence of DNA damage or incomplete DNA replication, eukaryotic cells activate cell cycle checkpoints that temporarily halt the cell cycle to permit DNA repair or completion of DNA replication to take place. In the presence of extensive damage or absence of timely repair, these checkpoint-signaling pathways may also [...]
Cholera Infection
Cholera is one of the most severe diarrheal diseases that affect humans and is responsible for significant morbidity and mortality especially among children in developing countries. It is characterized by numerous, voluminous watery stools, often accompanied by vomiting, and resulting in hypovolemic shock and acidosis. It is caused by certain [...]
ChREBP Regulation in Rattus norvegicus
The liver is the major organ responsible for the conversion of excess dietary carbohydrate into triglycerides. Ins (Insulin) and Glucagon (a pancreatic hormone) play critical roles in homeostatsis of Glucose and triglycerides in humans as well as in R. norvegicus (Rattus norvegicus). Glucose serves as a signal independent of hormones in activation [...]
Chromatin Remodeling
The condensation of DNA into an ordered chromatin structure allows the cell to solve the topological problems associated with storing huge molecules of chromosomal DNA within the nucleus. DNA is packaged into chromatin in orderly repeating protein-DNA complexes called nucleosomes. Each nucleosome consists of approximately 146bp of dsDNA (double-stranded DNA) [...]
Circadian Clock in Arabidopsis
Photoreceptors and circadian clocks are universal mechanisms for sensing and responding to the light environment. In addition to regulating daily activities, photoreceptors and circadian clocks are also involved in the seasonal regulation of processes such as flowering. Circadian rhythms govern many plant processes, including movements of organs such as leaves [...]
Circadian Clock in Drosophila
Circadian rhythms are near-24-hour rhythms of biological processes that persist in the absence of environmental cues such as light and temperature. Such rhythms have been described in organisms ranging from photosynthetic prokaryotes to higher eukaryotes and reflect the existence of an underlying intrinsic circadian oscillator or biological clock. This circadian [...]
Circadian Clock in Mammals
Circadian clocks are molecular time-keeping mechanisms that reside in a diverse range of cell types in a variety of organisms. The primary role of these cell-autonomous clocks is to maintain their own 24-hour molecular rhythm and to drive the rhythmic expression of genes involved in physiology, metabolism and behavior. The [...]
Circadian Clock in Neurospora
Circadian rhythms are endogenous biological programs that time metabolic and/or behavioral events to occur at optimal phases of the daily cycle. Although these rhythms parallel environmental cycles of light and dark, they are not simply a reaction to environmental fluctuations, but are generated by an endogenous timekeeping mechanism called the [...]
Circadian Clock in Synechococcus
Circadian rhythms are endogenous biological programs that allow organisms to anticipate changes in their environment, such as the onset of dawn and dusk, thereby coordinating temporal phases of physiology with the external environment. In plants, the circadian clock organizes a wide array of daily rhythms, including the expression of genes [...]
Cla4-PAK Signaling in Budding Yeast
Simple eukaryotes such as yeasts and molds encode multiple PAKs (p21-Activated Kinases) that, like their orthologs in other systems, act downstream of Rho-family GTPases to regulate cytoskeletal structure and gene transcription. All PAKs contain an N-terminal PBD (p21 GTPase-Binding-Domain), which confers binding to small GTPases such as CDC42 (Cell Division [...]
Classical Complement Pathway
Complement is a system of circulating enzymes that is part of the body's response to illness or injury. The complement system plays an essential role in host defence against infectious agents and in the inflammatory process. It consists of about thirty plasma proteins that function either as enzymes or as [...]
Cleavage and Polyadenylation of Pre-mRNA
During the course of transcription, the initial RNA product synthesized by RNA-PolII (RNA Polymerase-II), called a Primary transcript undergoes several processing steps including Capping, Splicing and Polyadenylation, before a functional mRNA (messenger RNA) is produced. RNA Polymerase initiates transcription at the first nucleotide of the first exon of a gene. [...]
CMV and MAPK Pathways
Signal transduction is a common process used by an extensive array of biological ligands to modulate various host cell processes such as growth, differentiation, and proliferation. Cells respond to CMV Cytomegalovirus) by invoking a cascade of biological and physiological responses resulting in signal transduction and regulation of cellular gene expression, [...]
CNTF Signaling
CNTF (Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor) is a protein expressed in glial cells, which stimulates gene expression and cell survival and differentiation in a variety of neuronal cell populations and acts as a lesion factor involved in the prevention of nerve degeneration after injury. It is a member of the GP130 (130-kDa [...]
Colorectal Cancer Metastasis
Colorectal cancer represents a relatively well-characterized tumorigenesis paradigm and colorectal carcinoma is one of the leading causes of cancer-related death. Colorectal cancer results from the accumulation of genetic alterations. Genomic instability creates a permissive state in which a potential cancer cell is allowed to acquire enough mutations to become a [...]
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