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Signaling Pathways      Metabolic Pathways     All Pathways
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Complement Pathway
The C (Complement) system consists of about twenty plasma proteins that function either as enzymes or as binding proteins. In addition to these plasma proteins, the complement system includes multiple distinct cell-surface receptors that exhibit specificity for the physiological fragments of complement proteins and that occur on inflammatory cells and [...]
CREB Pathway
The process of consolidating a new memory and the dynamic complexity of information processing within neuronal networks is greatly increased by activity-dependent changes in gene expression within individual neurons. A leading paradigm of such regulation is the activation of the nuclear transcription factor CREB (cAMP Responsive Element Binding Protein), and its family [...]
CRHR Pathway Recently Updated
CRH (Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone) and related peptides play a major role in coordinating the behavioral, endocrine, cardiovascular, autonomic and immune mechanisms that allow mammals to adapt under both basal and stressful conditions. Their actions are mediated through activation of two types of GPCRs (G-Protein-Coupled Receptors): CRHR1 (CRH Receptor-1) and CRHR2 (CRH Receptor-2) encoded by separate genes (Ref.1). CRH and CRH-related peptides and their receptors
Crosstalk Between CARM1 and ESRs
The ESRs (Estrogen Receptors) are ligand-dependent transcription factors and are important Nuclear Hormone Receptors that act as regulators of cell growth, differentiation and malignant transformation. Transcriptional activation by ESRs is accomplished through specific and general cofactor complexes that assemble with the receptor at target promoters to regulate transcription. The chief [...]
CTL Mediated Apoptosis
The CTLs (Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes), also known as killer T-Cells are produced during cell-mediated immunity designed to remove body cells displaying "foreign" epitope, such as virus-infected cells, cells containing intracellular bacteria, and cancer cells with mutant surface proteins. The CTLs are able to kill these cells by inducing a programmed [...]
CTLA4 Signaling
The T-Cell compartment of adaptive immunity provides vertebrates with the potential to survey for and respond specifically to an incredible diversity of antigens (Ref.1). In the periphery, one important level of regulation is the action of costimulatory signals in concert with TCR (T-Cell antigen Receptor) signals to promote full T-Cell [...]
CXCR4 Pathway
The Chemokine receptor CXCR4 is a 352 amino acid rhodopsin-like GPCR and selectively binds the CXC chemokine Stromal Cell-Derived Factor 1 (SDF1) also known as CXCL12. Classically, two alternatively spliced isoforms of SDF have been identified.
Cyclins and Cell Cycle Regulation Recently Updated
Progress in the eukaryotic cell cycle is driven by oscillations in the activities of CDKs (Cyclin-Dependent Kinases). CDK activity is controlled by periodic synthesis and degradation of positive regulatory subunits, Cyclins, as well as by fluctuations in levels of negative regulators, by CKIs (CDK Inhibitors), and by reversible phosphorylation. The [...]
Cytokine Network
The immune system recognizes the presence of pathogens by several proteins that bind to molecules secreted by the pathogen or carried on their surface. The cells responsible for these immune responses include the B-Cells, T-Cells, macrophages, neutrophils, basophils, eosinophils, endothelial cells, or mast cells . These cells have distinct roles [...]
Cytokinin Signaling in Arabidopsis
CKs (Cytokinins), a group of Phytohormones, are involved in the regulation of various processes in plant growth and development such as Cell Division Control, Shoot Meristem Initiation, Leaf and Root Differentiation, Chloroplast Biogenesis, Stress Tolerance, and Senescence. Cytokinins occur as a bound form in the tRNA of most organisms, including [...]
Developmental Cycle of C. pneumoniae
The Chlamydiae are Gram-negative bacteria that are obligate intracellular parasites of eukaryotic cells and are the etiologic agents of several human diseases. These parasites depend on their host cell for growth and prolonged survival (Ref.1). Chlamydia pneumoniae is a common human pathogen and can lead to upper respiratory tract infections, [...]
Developmental Phases of Colorectal Cancer
Colorectal tumors arise as a result of the mutational activation of oncogenes coupled with the mutational inactivation of tumor suppressor genes without a major role for gene amplification or rearrangement. These tumors affect the colon and rectum, and most colorectal cancers arise from adenomatous polyps. The development of colorectal neoplasms [...]
DHA Signaling
The cell membranes do not simply serve as barriers to separate the inside of the cell from the outside or to delineate different intracellular compartments. These membranes also serve as a platform for cell signaling by allowing specific sets of proteins to interact. Phospholipids are major structural constituents of the [...]
DNA Damage Induced 14-3-3Sigma Signaling
The 14-3-3 proteins comprise a large family of highly conserved, small, acidic polypeptides of 28¡V33 kDa that are found in all eukaryotic species and play important roles in a wide range of cellular processes including signal transduction, apoptosis, cell cycle progression, and checkpoint activation (Ref.1). In humans, seven different genes [...]
DNA Methylation and Transcriptional Repression
Transcriptional repression is an essential mechanism in the precise control of gene expression. Transcriptional repressor proteins associate with their target genes either directly through a DNA-binding domain or indirectly by interacting with other DNA-bound proteins. To inhibit transcription in a selective manner, a repressor protein can (1) mask a transcriptional [...]
DNA Repair Mechanisms
Cells are constantly under threat from the cytotoxic and mutagenic effects of DNA damaging agents. Environmental DNA-damaging agents include UV light and ionizing radiation, as well as a variety of chemicals encountered in foodstuffs, or as air- and water-borne agents. Endogenous damaging agents include metabolites that can act as alkylating [...]
Dopamine-DARPP32 Feedback onto cAMP Pathway
One of the ultimate frontiers for mankind is the elucidation of the function of the mind. Dopaminergic and Glutamergic are two primary neurotransmitter systems in the brain, which are crucially important for the control of the body musculature and the Dopamine-induced signaling pathways. Dopamine, a derivative of the amino acid Tyrosine, is a monoamine neurotransmitter that serves as a chemical messenger in the nervous system.
DR3 Signaling
The TNFR (Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor) superfamily comprises a growing family of type I membrane bound glycoproteins, which interact with the TNF family of soluble mediators and type II transmembrane proteins. At least 23 TNFR superfamily members and 17 known ligands have been identified in mammals. These receptors trigger pleiotropic [...]
DREAM Repression and Dynorphin Expression
The experience of pain in response to noxious stimuli serves a crucial biological purpose: it alerts a living organism to environmental dangers, inducing behavioral responses that protect the organism from further damage. In contrast, chronic pain arising from disease states and/or pathological functioning of the nervous system offers no advantage [...]
Drosophila PI3K Pathway
The PI3K (Phosphatidylinositde-3 Kinase) family of enzymes is recruited upon growth factor receptor activation and produces 3' phosphoinositide lipids. The lipid products of PI3K act as second messengers by binding to and activating diverse cellular target proteins. Therefore, PI3Ks play a central role in many cellular functions. In mammals, the [...]
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