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Drosophila PI3K Pathway
The PI3K (Phosphatidylinositde-3 Kinase) family of enzymes is recruited upon growth factor receptor activation and produces 3' phosphoinositide lipids. The lipid products of PI3K act as second messengers by binding to and activating diverse cellular target proteins. Therefore, PI3Ks play a central role in many cellular functions. In mammals, the [...]
DRPLA Pathway
DRPLA (Dentatorubropallidoluysian Atrophy) is a Rare Neurodegenerative Disorder that usually is inherited in an Autosomal Dominant pattern. The Clinical symptoms are variable depending on the age of onset of the disease Myoclonus, Epilepsy, and Mental Retardation are the main symptoms in Juvenile Onset, whereas Cerebellar Ataxia, Choreoathetosis, and Dementia are [...]
DSB Repair by Homologous Recombination
DSBs (DNA Double-Strand Breaks) are extremely genotoxic DNA lesions that pose problems for DNA Transcription, Replication and Segregation. Improper processing of DSBs gives rise to chromosomal instability that can result in carcinogenesis through activation of proto-oncogenes or inactivation of tumor suppressor genes. DSBs are caused by exogenous sources such as [...]
DSB Repair by Non-Homologous End Joining
The DNA within our cells is continually being exposed to DNA-damaging agents. These include UV (Ultraviolet Light), natural and man-made mutagenic chemicals, ROS (Reactive Oxygen Species) generated by IR (Ionizing Radiation), replication of ssDNA (single stranded DNA) breaks, mechanical stress on the chromosomes or by processes such as redox cycling by heavy [...]
Ebola Virus Pathogenesis Recently Updated
Ebola virus is an aggressive pathogen that causes a highly lethal hemorrhagic fever syndrome in humans and nonhuman primates. Typically, Ebola virus infection runs its course within 14 to 21 days. Infection initially presents with nonspecific flu-like symptoms such as fever, myalgia, and malaise. As the infection progresses, patients exhibit severe bleeding and coagulation abnormalities, including gastrointestinal bleeding, rash, and a range of hematological irregularities
EGF Pathway
EGF (Epidermal Growth Factor) is a small 53 amino acid residue protein that is involved in normal cell growth, oncogenesis, and wound healing. This protein shows both strong sequential and functional homology with hTGF-Alpha (human type-Alpha Transforming Growth Factor), which is a competitor for EGF receptor sites. EGF binds to [...]
eIF2 Pathway
Protein synthesis in eukaryotic organisms is a complex process that requires cooperation among a large number of polypeptides including ribosomal proteins, modification of enzymes, and ribosome-associated translation factors. The initiation phase of protein synthesis, during which ribosomes select mRNAs to be translated and identify the translational start site, requires a [...]
Embryonic Cell Differentiation into Cardiac Lineages
Stem Cells are undifferentiated cells with broad developmental potential. They are able to generate various specialized cell types and, in addition, have the capacity to self-renew and thus to produce undifferentiated progeny that retain Stem Cell features. These properties allow Stem Cells to provide developing organs with appropriate numbers of [...]
Embryonic Stem Cell Pluripotency in Mouse
ESCs (Embryonic Stem Cells) are a population of Pluripotent, Self-renewing cells which can proliferate indefinitely and contribute to the formation of basically all cell types in vitro and in vivo. The study of mammalian ESCs, especially Mouse ESCs, has provided valuable insights into early embryogenesis in mammals. Mouse ES cells [...]
Endocytic Trafficking of EGFR
All cells need to interpret their environment. Efficient processing of signals from the extracellular milieu is achieved through dynamic signal-transduction systems. The components of this system that come into contact first with external signals are cell-surface receptors. RTKs (Receptor Tyrosine Kinases) comprise one large group of receptors that respond to [...]
Endothelin-1 Signaling Pathway
Cardiac hypertrophy describes an abnormal condition where the heart becomes enlarged. Several factors, such as increased mechanical loading and neuro-hormonal chemicals can induce hypertrophy. ET1 (Endothelin-1) is a 21-amino acid vasoconstrictor peptide, which is able to induce cardiac hypertrophy. In mammals this peptide family also includes ET2 and ET3.
eNOS Signaling
NO (Nitric Oxide) is a short-lived free radical gas involved in diverse physiological and pathological processes. It is produced along with L-Citrulline by the oxidation of L-Arginine and catalyzed by three different isoforms of NOS (NO Synthase). Type-I nNOS (neuronal NOS) and Type-III eNOS (endothelial NOS) are constitutively expressed as [...]
Enteropathogenic E.coli Induced Diarrhea
Pathogenic microbes subvert normal host-cell processes to create a specialized niche, which enhances their survival. A common and recurring target of pathogens is the host cell's cytoskeleton, which is utilized by these microbes for purposes that include attachment, entry into cells, movement within and between cells, vacuole formation and remodeling, [...]
EphB-EphrinB Signaling
The Eph family forms the largest group of RTKs (Receptor Tyrosine Kinases) comprising 14 members in mammals that play critical roles in diverse biological processes during development as well as in the mature animal. They are activated by membrane-bound ligands called Ephrins, which are classified into two subclasses based on [...]
Ephrin-Eph Signaling
In numerous processes that are vital for the development and maintenance of organism function, cells must communicate crucial information to respond appropriately to the changing environment. As such, RTKs (Receptor Tyrosine Kinases) are transmembrane proteins, which, on receiving an external stimulus, respond by transmitting a signal to the inside of [...]
EphrinA-EphR Signaling
Neuronal growth cones in the developing nervous system are guided to their targets by attractive and repulsive guidance molecules, which include members of the netrin, semaphorin, ephrin, and Slit protein families. The Eph family forms the largest group of RTKs (Receptor Tyrosine Kinases) comprising 14 members in mammals that play [...]
Epithelial Adherens Junctions
Adhesion between neighboring epithelial cells is a crucial and tightly controlled process. The integrity of cell-cell contacts is essential for the regulation of electrolyte absorption and for the prevention of tumor metastasis. In polarized epithelia, specialized structures such as Adherens Junctions (AJs) and Tight Junctions (TJs) are responsible for the [...]
Epithelial Tight Junctions
Epithelia in multicellular organisms constitute the frontier that separates the individual from the environment. Epithelia are sites of exchange as well as barriers, for the transit of ions and molecules from and into the organism. Epithelial cells achieve this by providing cellular borders that cover external and internal surfaces throughout [...]
ER-Mediated Phagocytosis
Phagocytosis, the process by which cells engulf foreign particles, occurs in eukaryotes ranging from unicellular organisms, which use it for nutrition, to mammals, where it plays a key role in innate immunity. The remarkable phagocytic capacity of Macrophages is illustrated by their ability to internalize particles that can be as [...]
ErbB Family Pathway
The ErbB (Erythroblastic Leukemia Viral Oncogene Homolog) or EGF (Epidermal Growth Factor) family of transmembrane RTKs (Receptor Tyrosine Kinases) plays an important role during the growth and development of a number of organs including the heart, the mammary gland, and the central nervous system. In addition, ErbB overexpression is associated [...]
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