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ErbB2-ErbB3 Heterodimers
The ErbB (Erythroblastic Leukemia Viral Oncogene Homolog) family of transmembrane RTKs (Receptor Tyrosine Kinases) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of many cancers (Ref.1). This family is comprised of four members EGFR (Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor), ErbB2, ErbB3, and ErbB4 (Ref.2). ErbB2 also called Her2 (Heregulin-2) and ErbB3 are closely related to the EGFR/ErbB1, but unlike EGFR, ErbB2 is a ligandless receptor, whereas
ErbB4 Pathway
ErbB4 (Erythroblastic Leukemia Viral Oncogene Homolog-4) is a 180-kDa transmembrane RTK (Receptor Tyrosine Kinase) that regulates cell proliferation and differentiation. The ErbB4 gene has been isolated as the fourth member of the human EGFR (Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor) subfamily of tyrosine kinases and has been reported to encode a receptor [...]
ERK Signaling Recently Updated
The MAPK (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase) pathway is one of the primordial signaling systems that nature has used in several permutations to accomplish an amazing variety of tasks. It exists in all eukaryotes, and controls such fundamental cellular processes as Proliferation, Differentiation, Survival and Apoptosis. Mammalian MAPK can be divided into [...]
ERK5 Signaling
ERK5 (also known as the BMK1 (Big MAP Kinase-1)) is an atypical MAPK that can be activated in vivo by a variety of stimuli, including Serum, Growth factors including EGF (Epidermal Growth Factor), NGF (Nerve Growth Factor) and BDNF (Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor), GPCRs (G-Protein Coupled Receptors), Lysophosphatidic Acid, Neurotrophins and [...]
Erythrocyte Invasion by Plasmodium Merozoite
Human Malaria is caused by infection with four species of the intracellular parasitic protozoan genus Plasmodium that are transmitted by Anopheles mosquitoes. Of these four species, Plasmodium falciparum is the most lethal. At present, at least 300 million people are affected by Malaria globally and accounts for 0.7-2.7 million annual [...]
Erythropoietin Pathway
Erythropoiesis is a major pathway for Erythrocyte production, by which pluripotent Hematopoietic Stem Cells give rise to mature end stage cells via a series of differentiations. Epo (Erythropoietin), a glycoprotein hormone and a multifunctional Hematopoietic Cytokine ligand, is the master regulator of Erythropoiesis. As a major function, it monitors the safe passage [...]
Estrogen Signaling
Estrogens play important roles in growth, development, reproduction, and maintenance of a diverse range of mammalian tissues. The physiological effects of estrogens are mediated by the intracellular ERs (Estrogen Receptors), which regulate transcription of target genes through binding to specific DNA target sequences. The ERs orchestrate both transcriptional and non-genomic [...]
Estrogen-mediated S-Phase Entry
Estrogens are a class of steroid hormones that play a central role in reproduction, and are regarded as the powerful female hormones that make a girl develop into a woman capable of reproduction. Estrogenic steroids, that include: E1 (Estrone), E2 (Estradiol/17-beta Estradiol) and E3 (Estriol), regulate cellular functions in a [...]
Ethylene Signaling in Arabidopsis
The Hydrocarbon Ethylene (C2H4) is a Gaseous Plant hormone, which is involved in a multitude of Physiological and Developmental processes. Responses to Ethylene include Fruit Ripening, Leaf Senescence and Abscission, Promotion or Inhibition of Seed Germination, Flowering and Cell Elongation. Environmental Stresses, such as Chilling, Flooding, Wounding and Pathogen Attack [...]
Exo-Erythrocytic Phase of Malaria Parasite
Malaria (from the Italian mal'aria, meaning bad air) is an Acute infection caused by four species of the Protozoa genus Plasmodium: P.falciprium, P.vivax, P.malariae and P.ovale. Plasmodium falciparum is the main cause of disease and death from Malaria. The parasite is transmitted to Humans through the bite of the infected [...]
Extrinsic Prothrombin Activation Pathway
Thrombin/TFIIa (Activated Factor-II) is a coagulation protein that has many effects in the Coagulation cascade, the homeostatic process of greatest interest. It is a multifunctional serine proteinase best known for its ability to cleave Fibrinogen to Fibrin. Fibrin forms an essential component of the Blood Clot. When a blood vessel [...]
Factors Promoting Cardiogenesis in Vertebrates
Heart is the first organ to form and function in the Embryo, and all subsequent events in the life of the organism depend on the Heart's ability to match its output with the organism's demands for Oxygen and nutrients. Abnormalities in Heart formation, the most common form of Human birth [...]
FAK1 Signaling Recently Updated
Engagement of integrin receptors with extracellular ligands gives rise to the formation of complex multi-protein structures that link the ECM (Extracellular Matrix) to the cytoplasmic actin cytoskeleton and signaling proteins including Talin, Alpha-actinin, Vinculin, Zyxin, Paxillin and FAK (Focal Adhesion Kinase). These adhesive complexes are dynamic, often heterogeneous structures, varying [...]
Fanconi’s Anaemia Pathway
A number of inherited (constitutional/genetic) disorders are characterized by BM (Bone Marrow) failure usually in association with one or more somatic abnormality. The BM failure may involve all or a single lineage; in some cases it may be initially associated with a single peripheral cytopenia and then progress to pancytopenia. [...]
Fas Signaling
Fas (also called Apo1 or CD95) is a death domain-containing member of the TNFR (Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor) superfamily. It has a central role in the physiological regulation of Programmed Cell Death and has been implicated in the pathogenesis of various malignancies and diseases of the immune system. Although the [...]
Fc-EpsilonRI Pathway
The formation of antigen-antibody complexes plays a fundamental role in our immune defense system. Interaction of these complexes with many cells of the immune system results in a variety of critical functions, including phagocytosis, antibody-dependent cytotoxicity, modulation of antibody secretion, cell secretion and sometimes the secretion and generation of an [...]
Fc-Gamma-RIIB Signaling in B-Cells
The ability of the immune system to respond appropriately to foreign antigen is dependent on a delicate balance of activating and inhibitory signals. Although positive signaling is essential for the generation of effective immunity, counterbalancing the immune response by inhibitory pathways is equally important. Loss of inhibitory signaling is often [...]
Fc-GammaR Pathway
The Fc-GammaRs (Fc-Gamma Receptors/Immunoglobulin-Gamma Fc Receptors) expressed on hematopoietic cells play a key role in immune defenses by linking humoral and cellular immunity. Fc-GammaRs display coordinate and opposing roles in immune responses depending on their cytoplasmic region and/or their associated chains (Ref.1). These receptors recognize the Fc (Crystalline Fragment) domains [...]
Fc-GammaR-Mediated Phagocytosis in Macrophages
Phagocytosis is of fundamental importance for a wide diversity of organisms. Phagocytic cells in complex metazoans represent an essential branch of the immune system. Evolution has armed these cells with a fantastic repertoire of receptors and molecules that serve to bring about this complex event (Ref.1). In macrophages, different cell [...]
FGF Pathway
Angiogenesis, the growth of new blood vessels, plays a key role in many physiological and pathological processes, such as ovulation, embryogenesis, wound repair, inflammation, malignant tumor growth, retinopathies, rheumatoid arthritis, and angiogenesis-dependent diseases. One of the best-characterized modulators of angiogenesis is the heparin-binding FGF (Fibroblast Growth Factor). FGF induces neovascularization [...]
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