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Androgen Signaling

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Androgens mediate a wide range of developmental and physiological responses and are especially important in male sexual differentiation and pubertal sexual maturation, the maintenance of spermatogenesis, and male gonadotropin regulation (Ref.1). The principle steroidal androgens, testosterone and its metabolite DHT (5-Alpha-Dihydrotestosterone), mediate their biological effects predominantly through binding to the AR (Androgen Receptor), an androgen-inducible member of the nuclear receptor superfamily of transcription factors (Ref.2).

Structurally, AR can be subdivided into four functional domains: the NH2-terminal transactivation domain (or A/B domain), the DBD (DNA-Binding Domain), hinge region, and the LBD (Ligand-Binding Domain). An NH2-terminal AF1 (Activation Function-1), functions in a ligand-independent manner when artificially separated from the LBD, creating a constitutively active receptor. A ligand-dependent AF2 function is located in [...]


1.The roles of androgen receptors and androgen-binding proteins in nongenomic androgen actions.
Heinlein CA, Chang C.
Mol Endocrinol. 2002 Oct;16(10):2181-7. Review.
2.Molecular communication between androgen receptor and general transcription machinery.
Lee DK, Chang C.
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2003 Jan;84(1):41-9. Review.
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