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Autophagy

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Description

Autophagy is a process of self-degradation of cellular components in which double-membrane autophagosomes sequester organelles or portions of cytosol and fuse with lysosomes or vacuoles for breakdown by resident hydrolases. It also plays a housekeeping role in removing misfolded or aggregated proteins, clearing damaged organelles, such as mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum and peroxisomes, as well as eliminating intracellular pathogens. Autophagy, or self-eating , is an adaptive process that enables cells to cope with metabolic, toxic, and even infectious stressors. Although the adaptive capability of autophagy is generally considered beneficial, autophagy can also enhance nutrient utilization and improve growth characteristics of cancer cells. Autophagy has been divided into three general types depending on the mechanism by which intracellular materials are delivered into lysosome [...]

References:

1.Autophagy as a modulator and target in prostate cancer.
Farrow JM, Yang JC, Evans CP.
Nat Rev Urol. 2014 Sep;11(9):508-16. doi: 10.1038/nrurol.2014.196. Epub 2014 Aug 19. Review.
2.Signals from the lysosome: a control centre for cellular clearance and energy metabolism.
Settembre C, Fraldi A, Medina DL, Ballabio A.
Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2013 May;14(5):283-96. doi: 10.1038/nrm3565. Review.
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