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Autophagy is a process of self-degradation of cellular components in which double-membrane autophagosomes sequester organelles or portions of cytosol and fuse with lysosomes or vacuoles for breakdown by resident hydrolases. It also plays a housekeeping role in removing misfolded or aggregated proteins, clearing damaged organelles, such as mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum and peroxisomes, as well as eliminating intracellular pathogens. Autophagy has been divided into three general types depending on the mechanism by which intracellular materials are delivered into lysosome for degradation that is, microautophagy, chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA), and macroautophagy (Ref.1 and 2).

Autophagy is upregulated in response to extra- or intracellular stress and signals such as starvation, growth factor deprivation, ER stress, and pathogen infection. A major player in nutrient sensing [...]


1.Regulation mechanisms and signaling pathways of autophagy.
He C, Klionsky DJ.
Annu Rev Genet. 2009;43:67-93. doi: 10.1146/annurev-genet-102808-114910. Review.
2.Signals from the lysosome: a control centre for cellular clearance and energy metabolism.
Settembre C, Fraldi A, Medina DL, Ballabio A.
Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2013 May;14(5):283-96. doi: 10.1038/nrm3565. Review.
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