About Us
Contact Us
Login to Protein Lounge!

Biosynthesis of Spermidine and Spermine

This image is a scaled-down version of the actual pathway image. It does not contain any links to the protein information pages.


The polyamines Spermidine and Spermine are naturally occurring ubiquitous polycations involved in the regulation of cell growth, differentiation, apoptosis and progression through the cell cycle. (Ref.1). Cellular polyamine levels are regulated by multiple pathways such as synthesis from amino acid precursors, cellular uptake mechanisms that salvage polyamines from diet and intestinal microorganisms, as well as stepwise degradation and efflux (Ref.2).

Putrescine and S-Adenosylmethionine are the obligate precursors for Spermidine and Spermine. In mammals Putrescine is formed by decarboxylation of Ornithine by the action of Ornithine Decarboxylase. Ornithine, one of the starting materials for polyamine biosynthesis, is derived from the amino acid Arginine as part of the urea cycle. Before reacting with Putrescine to form Spermidine, S-Adenosylmethionine is first decarboxylated to [...]


1.Up-regulation of spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase (SSAT) expression is a part of proliferative but not anabolic response of mouse kidney.
Dudkowska M, Stachurska A, Grzelakowska-Sztabert B, Manteuffel-Cymborowska M.
Acta Biochim Pol. 2002;49(4):969-77.
2.Polyamines in cell growth and cell death: molecular mechanisms and therapeutic applications.
Thomas T, Thomas TJ.
Cell Mol Life Sci. 2001 Feb;58(2):244-58.
You can get all the details on this pathway through subscription