Sphingolipids are structural components of the cell membrane plays a key role in the regulation of cellular processes. The products of sphingolipid metabolism may act as secondary messengers in cellular signal transduction pathways. Cell signaling pertaining to sphingolipids involves inducing apoptosis, cell cycle arrest and cell growth. There are multiple bioactive shingolipids/metabolites. These include ceramide, sphingosine-1-phosphate, sphingosine, and sphingomyelin. Sphingolipids are abundant components of the myelin sheath, a multilayered structure that protects and insulates cells of the central nervous system. Sphingolipids are also found in plant cells and yeast. Sphingolipids are derivatives of the base sphingosine (phytosphingosine in plants).
Biosynthesis of glycosphingolipids starts with the formation of ceramide at the membranes of the endoplasmic reticulum. Initially, palmitoyl-CoA is joined to [...]