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D-Alanine Metabolism in B. licheniformis ATCC 14580

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Bacillus licheniformis is a Gram-positive, spore-forming soil bacterium that is used in the biotechnology industry to manufacture enzymes, antibiotics, biochemicals and consumer products. This species is closely related to B. subtilis, and produces an assortment of extracellular enzymes that may contribute to nutrient cycling in nature. Unlike most other Bacilli, which are predominantly aerobic, B. licheniformis is a facultative anaerobe, which may allow it to grow in additional ecological niches. The type strain ATCC 14580 consists of a circular chromosome best studied of all B. licheniformis strains (Ref.1, 2 & 3).

The cell wall of these Gram-positive bacteria is a unique biopolymer, containing both D- and L-Amino acids. Its basic structure is a carbohydrate backbone of alternating units of N-Acetyl Glucosamine [...]


1.Complete genome sequence of the industrial bacterium Bacillus licheniformis and comparisons with closely related Bacillus species.
Rey MW, Ramaiya P, Nelson BA, Brody-Karpin SD, Zaretsky EJ, Tang M, Lopez de Leon A, Xiang H, Gusti V, Clausen IG, Olsen PB, Rasmussen MD, Andersen JT, Jorgensen PL, Larsen TS, Sorokin A, Bolotin A, Lapidus A, Galleron N, Ehrlich SD, Berka RM.
Genome Biol. 2004; 5(10):R77. Epub 2004 Sep 13.
2.Distribution and variation of bacitracin synthetase gene sequences in laboratory stock strains of Bacillus licheniformis.
Ishihara H, Takoh M, Nishibayashi R, Sato A.
Curr Microbiol. 2002 Jul; 45(1):18-23.
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