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D-Alanine Metabolism in B. licheniformis DSM13

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Bacillus licheniformis is a Gram-positive, spore-forming soil bacterium that is used in the biotechnology industry to manufacture enzymes, antibiotics, biochemicals and consumer products. B. licheniformis, B. subtilis, and B. pumilus comprise the subtilis group, which has been associated with a range of clinical conditions, food spoilage such as ropy bread, and incidents of food-borne gastroenteritis. B. licheniformis has also been associated with septicemia, peritonitis, ophthalmitis, and food poisoning in humans, as well as with bovine toxemia and abortions. It is a common contaminant of dairy products (Ref.1, 2 & 3). B. licheniformis DSM13 consists of a single chromosome and has a well-conserved secretory system.

The cell wall of these Gram-positive bacteria is a unique biopolymer, containing both D- and L-Amino acids. [...]


1.Toxigenic strains of Bacillus licheniformis related to food poisoning.
Salkinoja-Salonen MS, Vuorio R, Andersson MA, Kampfer P, Andersson MC, Honkanen-Buzalski T, Scoging AC.
Appl Environ Microbiol. 1999 Oct; 65(10):4637-45.
2.The complete genome sequence of Bacillus licheniformis DSM13, an organism with great industrial potential.
Veith B, Herzberg C, Steckel S, Feesche J, Maurer KH, Ehrenreich P, Baumer S, Henne A, Liesegang H, Merkl R, Ehrenreich A, Gottschalk G.
J Mol Microbiol Biotechnol. 2004; 7(4):204-11.
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