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D-Alanine Metabolism in C. acetobutylicum

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The Clostridia are a diverse group of Gram-positive, rod-shaped anaerobes that include several toxin-producing pathogens (notably Clostridium difficile, Clostridium botulinum, Clostridium tetani, Clostridium acetobutylicum and Clostridium perfringens) and a large number of terrestrial species that produce acetone, butanol, ethanol, isopropanol, and organic acids through fermentation of a variety of carbon sources (Ref.1). C. acetobutylicum strain ATCC 824 has been used for the industrial production of acetone, butanol, and ethanol by the fermentation of carbohydrates. This organism is able to utilize a wide range of carbohydrate substrates, including the polymers starch and xylan and saccharides such as glucose, xylose, and cellobiose (Ref.2 & 3).

The cell wall of C. acetobutylicum is a unique biopolymer, containing both D- and L-Amino acids. Its basic [...]


1.Genome sequence and comparative analysis of the solvent-producing bacterium Clostridium acetobutylicum.
Nolling J, Breton G, Omelchenko MV, Makarova KS, Zeng Q, Gibson R, Lee HM, Dubois J, Qiu D, Hitti J, Wolf YI, Tatusov RL, Sabathe F, Doucette-Stamm L, Soucaille P, Daly MJ, Bennett GN, Koonin EV, Smith DR.
J Bacteriol. 2001 Aug; 183(16):4823-38.
2.Substrate-induced production and secretion of cellulases by Clostridium acetobutylicum.
Lopez-Contreras AM, Gabor K, Martens AA, Renckens BA, Claassen PA, Van Der Oost J, De Vos WM.
Appl Environ Microbiol. 2004 Sep; 70(9):5238-43.
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