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D-Alanine Metabolism in E. faecalis

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Enterococci are Gram-positive, facultative anaerobic and lactic acid producing bacteria. Most strains are nonhemolytic. Enterococcus faecalis (also known as Streptococcus faecalis), the second most frequent enterococcal species, is a saprophytic commensal that inhabits the oral cavity and gastrointestinal flora of humans and animals, although it can behave as an opportunistic pathogen causing severe urinary tract infections, surgical wound infections, bacteremia, and bacterial endocarditis. Over the past 2 decades, E. faecalis has become responsible for up to 12% of nosocomial infections, with mortality rates for bloodstream infections ranging from 20 to 68% depending on the patient population. The increased incidence of E. faecalis infection has been related to the innate resistance of this microorganism to many commonly used antimicrobial agents and [...]


1.Synthesis of the L-alanyl-L-alanine cross-bridge of Enterococcus faecalis peptidoglycan.
Bouhss A, Josseaume N, Severin A, Tabei K, Hugonnet JE, Shlaes D, Mengin-Lecreulx D, Van Heijenoort J, Arthur M.
J Biol Chem. 2002 Nov 29; 277(48):45935-41. Epub 2002 Sep 24.
2.Differences in antibiotic resistance patterns of Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium strains isolated from farm and pet animals.
Butaye P, Devriese LA, Haesebrouck F.
Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2001 May; 45(5):1374-8.
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