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D-Alanine Metabolism in G. kaustophilus

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Geobacillus kaustophilus HTA426, which was isolated from the deep-sea sediment of the Mariana Trench, is a thermophilic Bacillus-related species whose upper temperature limit for growth is 74 degrees Celsius (optimally 60 degrees Celsius). It is known that there are at least 12 other thermophilic Geobacillus species, which have been reclassified from the genus Bacillus (Ref.1, 2 & 3).

The cell wall of these bacteria is a unique biopolymer, containing both D- and L-Amino acids. The terminal peptide is D-Alanine although other amino acids are present as D- isomers and this is the only known biological molecule that contains D-Amino acids, which are responsible for the building of peptidoglycan. A key step in peptidoglycan layer assembly and deposition is the subsequent [...]


1.Thermoadaptation trait revealed by the genome sequence of thermophilic Geobacillus kaustophilus.
Takami H, Takaki Y, Chee GJ, Nishi S, Shimamura S, Suzuki H, Matsui S, Uchiyama I.
Nucleic Acids Res. 2004 Dec 1; 32(21):6292-303. Print 2004.
2.Taxonomic study of aerobic thermophilic bacilli: descriptions of Geobacillus subterraneus gen. nov., sp. nov. and Geobacillus uzenensis sp. nov. from petroleum reservoirs and transfer of Bacillus stearothermophilus, Bacillus thermocatenulatus, Bacillus thermoleovorans, Bacillus kaustophilus, Bacillus thermodenitrificans to Geobacillus as the new combinations G. stearothermophilus, G. th.
Nazina TN, Tourova TP, Poltaraus AB, Novikova EV, Grigoryan AA, Ivanova AE, Lysenko AM, Petrunyaka VV, Osipov GA, Belyaev SS, Ivanov MV.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2001 Mar; 51(Pt 2):433-46.
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