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D-Alanine Metabolism in L. lactis

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Lactic acid bacteria are a heterogeneous group of microorganisms that convert carbohydrates into lactic acid. They comprise both pathogens (such as Streptococcus pneumoniae or Streptococcus pyogenes) and useful bacteria (such as Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactococcus lactis, which were used for millennia in milk fermentation). In nature, L. lactis occupies a niche related to plant or animal surfaces and the animal gastrointestinal tract. It is believed to be dormant on the plant surfaces and to multiply in the gastrointestinal tract after being swallowed by a ruminant. In contrast, "domesticated" species of L. lactis, used by dairy industry as starters in cheese fermentation, live in a different niche, which is defined by technological considerations, such as fast growth and rapid production of [...]


1.Autolysis of Lactococcus lactis is increased upon D-alanine depletion of peptidoglycan and lipoteichoic acids.
Steen A, Palumbo E, Deghorain M, Cocconcelli PS, Delcour J, Kuipers OP, Kok J, Buist G, Hols P.
J Bacteriol. 2005 Jan; 187(1):114-24.
2.The complete genome sequence of the lactic acid bacterium Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis IL1403.
Bolotin A, Wincker P, Mauger S, Jaillon O, Malarme K, Weissenbach J, Ehrlich SD, Sorokin A.
Genome Res. 2001 May; 11(5):731-53.
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