About Us
Contact Us
Login to Protein Lounge!

D-Alanine Metabolism in P. luminescens

This image is a scaled-down version of the actual pathway image. It does not contain any links to the protein information pages.


Photorhabdus sp. are facultatively anaerobic gram negative rods, nonsporulating and chemoorganotrophic heterotrophs with respiratory and fermentative metabolisms. They are included in the family of Enterobacteriaceae belonging to Group-5 and Sub-group1. Almost all species of Photorhabdus are entomopathogenic. The bacterium Photorhabdus luminescens is pathogenic to a wide range of insects (Ref.1). A key step in peptidoglycan layer assembly and deposition in this bacterial cell wall is the subsequent enzymic cross-linking of one peptidoglycan strand to an adjacent one in cell wall growth. D-Alanine is a central molecule in the peptidoglycan assembly and cross-linking in P. luminescens.

The naturally occurring L-Alanine isomer is racemized to its D-form through the action of a class of enzymes called AlRs (Alanine Racemase DadX and AlR). [...]


1.Photorhabdus: towards a functional genomic analysis of a symbiont and pathogen.
ffrench-Constant R, Waterfield N, Daborn P, Joyce S, Bennett H, Au C, Dowling A, Boundy S, Reynolds S, Clarke D.
FEMS Microbiol Rev. 2003 Jan; 26(5):433-56. Review.
2.The genome sequence of the entomopathogenic bacterium Photorhabdus luminescens.
Duchaud E, Rusniok C, Frangeul L, Buchrieser C, Givaudan A, Taourit S, Bocs S, Boursaux-Eude C, Chandler M, Charles JF, Dassa E, Derose R, Derzelle S, Freyssinet G, Gaudriault S, Medigue C, Lanois A, Powell K, Siguier P, Vincent R, Wingate V, Zouine M, Glaser P, Boemare N, Danchin A, Kunst F.
Nat Biotechnol. 2003 Nov; 21(11):1307-13. Epub 2003 Oct 5
You can get all the details on this pathway through subscription