Transcriptional repression is an essential mechanism in the precise control of gene expression. Transcriptional repressor proteins associate with their target genes either directly through a DNA-binding domain or indirectly by interacting with other DNA-bound proteins. To inhibit transcription in a selective manner, a repressor protein can (1) mask a transcriptional activation domain, (2) block interaction of an activator with other components of the transcription machinery, or (3) displace an activator from the DNA. Furthermore, DNA response elements can exert allosteric effects on transcriptional regulators, such that regulators may activate transcription in the context of one gene, yet repress transcription in another (Ref.1).
The most direct mechanism by which DNA methylation can interfere with transcription is to prevent the binding of [...]