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DNA Repair Mechanisms

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Description

Cells are constantly under threat from the cytotoxic and mutagenic effects of DNA damaging agents. Environmental DNA-damaging agents include UV light and ionizing radiation, as well as a variety of chemicals encountered in foodstuffs, or as air- and water-borne agents. Endogenous damaging agents include metabolites that can act as alkylating agents and the ROS (Reactive Oxygen Species) that arise during respiration. DNA repair enzymes continuously monitor chromosomes to correct damaged nucleotide residues generated by these exogenous and endogenous agents and exposure to carcinogens and cytotoxic compounds like inhaled cigarette smoke, or incompletely defined dietary factors. Failure to repair DNA lesions may result in blockages of transcription and replication, mutagenesis, and cellular cytotoxicity. In humans, DNA damage is involved in a variety of [...]

References:

1.Cellular responses to DNA damage
Norbury CJ, Hickson ID
Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2001; 41:367-401. Review
2.Interaction of human apurinic endonuclease and DNA polymerase beta in the base excision repair pathway
Bennett RA, Wilson DM 3rd, Wong D, Demple B
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997 Jul 8; 94(14): 7166-9
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