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Developmental Phases of Colorectal Cancer

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Colorectal tumors arise as a result of the mutational activation of oncogenes coupled with the mutational inactivation of tumor suppressor genes without a major role for gene amplification or rearrangement. These tumors affect the colon and rectum, and most colorectal cancers arise from adenomatous polyps. The development of colorectal neoplasms is characterized by an ordered series of events that are referred to as the “Dysplasia-Carcinoma Sequence” or “Adenoma-Carcinoma Sequence”. Mutations in at least four to five genes are required for the formation of malignant tumors and fewer changes only suffice for benign tumorigenesis. Although genetic alterations occur according to a preferred sequence, the total accumulation of changes, rather than their order, is responsible for determining the tumor s biologic properties. The [...]


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Itzkowitz SH, Yio X.
Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2004 Jul;287(1):G7-17.
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