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Endothelin-1 Signaling Pathway

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Cardiac hypertrophy describes an abnormal condition where the heart becomes enlarged. Several factors, such as increased mechanical loading and neuro-hormonal chemicals can induce hypertrophy. ET1 (Endothelin-1) is a 21-amino acid vasoconstrictor peptide, which is able to induce cardiac hypertrophy. In mammals this peptide family also includes ET2 and ET3. ET1 is the principal isoform in the human cardiovascular system and remains the most ubiquitous, potent, and unusually long-lasting constrictor of human vessels discovered. Biosynthesis of ET1 is primarily regulated by autocrine mechanisms, physico-chemical factors, including mechanical forces, changes in oxygen tension, changes in pH, Angiotensin-II, Vasopressin, Norepinephrine, growth factors, cytokines, lipoproteins and adhesion molecules. Inhibitors of ET1 synthesis include NO (Nitric Oxide) and its intracellular effectors, cGMP (cyclic Guanosine Monophosphate), [...]


1.Endothelin, hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis.
Barton M, Traupe T, Haudenschild CC
Coron Artery Dis. 2003 Nov; 14(7): 477-90.
2.International Union of Pharmacology. XXIX. Update on endothelin receptor nomenclature.
Davenport AP
Pharmacol Rev. 2002 Jun; 54(2): 219-26. Review.
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