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G-AlphaS Signaling

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G-proteins are heterotrimers, consisting of Alpha, Beta and Gamma subunits, and are involved in signaling to distinct effectors. Heterotrimeric G-proteins convey extracellular signals that activate 7-transmembrane-spanning GPCRs (G-Protein-Coupled Receptors) to the inside of cells, communicating this information to effector proteins and thus initiating changes in cell behaviour. GPCRs constitute a large and diverse family of proteins whose primary function is to transduce extracellular stimuli into intracellular signals. GPCRs recognize a variety of ligands and stimuli including Peptide and non-peptide Hormones and Neurotransmitters, Chemokines, Prostanoids and Proteinases, Biogenic amines, Nucleosides, Lipids, Growth factors, Odorant molecules and Light. GPCRs turn on G-proteins by promoting the binding of the activating nucleotide GTP in exchange for GDP on the G-Alpha subunit. In the inactive [...]


1.Mammalian G proteins and their cell type specific functions.
Wettschureck N, Offermanns S.
Physiol Rev. 2005 Oct;85(4):1159-204.
2.Imprinting the Gnas locus.
Plagge A, Kelsey G.
Cytogenet Genome Res. 2006;113(1-4):178-87.
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