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G-Beta Gamma Signaling

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G-proteins (Guanine Nucleotide-Binding Proteins) are heterotrimeric proteins that mediate signal transduction between many membrane-bound receptors and intracellular effectors. Traditionally, activation of heterotrimeric G-proteins is accomplished exclusively by the action of GPCRs (G-Protein Coupled Receptors), Seven transmembrane-spanning proteins that typically reside in the Plasma membrane. G-proteins consist of Alpha, Beta and Gamma subunits, and each is involved in signaling to distinct effectors. There are 20 different mammalian G-Alpha subunits (depending on alternative splicing) and 6 Beta and 14 Gamma subtypes. The G-Beta-subunit of heterotrimeric G-proteins has a Beta-propeller structure containing seven WD-40 repeats. The Gamma-subunit interacts with the G-Beta-subunit through an N-terminal coiled coil and makes extensive contacts along the base of the G-Beta subunit. The G-BetaGamma-dimer binds to a hydrophobic [...]


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