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G1-S Phase Transition

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Cell cycle arrest in response to DNA damage is an important mechanism for maintaining genomic integrity. This cell cycle arrest provides time for DNA repair to prevent replication or segregation of damaged DNA. Induction of growth arrest by DNA damage occurs mainly through the activation of checkpoint pathways that delay cell cycle progression at G1, S, and G2 (Ref.1).

In vertebrate cells, the commitment to complete a round of mitotic division takes place during the initial phase of the cell cycle (G1), at a stage called the restriction (R) point, preceding the onset of DNA synthesis (S-phase) (Ref.2). Two cell cycle kinases, CDK4/6 (Cyclin-Dependent Kinase)-Cyclin-D and CDK2-Cyclin-E, and the transcription complex that includes Rb (Retinoblastoma)-family proteins (also called "pocket proteins") and [...]


1.DNA double-strand breaks: signaling, repair and the cancer connection
Khanna KK, Jackson SP
Nat Genet. 2001 Mar; 27(3): 247-54. Review
2.What is the restriction point?
Zetterberg A, Larsson O, Wiman KG
Curr Opin Cell Biol. 1995 Dec; 7(6): 835-42. Review
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